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A Chinese Cemetery « - ....... vigxettb (>2 

The Woo-tang Mountains ........... 5 

Hall of Audience, Palace of Yuen-inin-yuen. ...;.. ... 8 

Landing-place and Entrance to the Temple of Hoiiau ...... 10 

The Proof-sword Rock, Hoo-kew-shan .......... 12 

Estuary of the Ta-hea, or Ning-po River ......... 15 

The Tai-wang-kow, or Yellow Pagoda Fort, Canton River . . . . . .17 

Ladies of a Mandarin's Family at Cards ......... 18 

Termination of the Great Wall of Ciiina ... 21 

The Shih-mun, or Rock Gates 23 

Dyeing and Winding Silk ............ 25 

Sowing Rice, at Soo-chow-foo ........... 27 

Transplanting Rice . . 30 

Playing at Shuttlecock with the Feet ......... 32 

Entrance to the Hoang-ho, or Yellow River ......... 34 

Sacrifice of tiie Ching-tswe-tsee, or Harvest-moon ....... 36 

The Western Gate of Peking 89 

The Grotto of Camiiens, Macao 42 

The Cataract of Shili-tan ............ 4o 

Gardens of the Imperial Palace, Peking 46 

Cap-vender's Shop, Canton . 48 

Close of the Attack on Chapoo 49 



An Itinerant Barber 51 

Scene in the Suburbs of Ting-bae 53 

Opium-smokers ... . .... , . . . . . 54 

Amo}-, from the Outer Harbour 56 

A Marriage Procession 58 

Landing-place at tlie Yuk-shan ........... 60 

Silk Farms at Iloo-chow ............ 61 

A Devotee consulting the Sticks of Fate 64 

Great Temple at Honan 66 

The Emperor Taou-kwang reviewing his Guard? ........ 67 









" The wild streams leap with headlong sweep, 
In their ciirbless course o'er the mountain steep : 
All fresh and strong they foam along, 
Waking the rocks with their cataract song." 

The Recluse or the Rock. 

In the schistose district of the Meilung mountains, that engross the southern part of 
Kiang-si, the forms of the cliffs and the crags are more varied than art could ever have 
made them, and than nature generally does. The goddess, however, in a sportive mood, 
seems to have moulded the amazingly diversified surface of the Woo-tang rocks, in 
which the Kan-kiang-ho has its source; for, the toppling position of the great mass that 
overhangs the village of Woo-tang and the vale of Nan-kang-foo, is obedient rather 
to the strength of adhesion than the laws of gravit)'. An Alpine grandeur pervades 
the whole mountain chain to the north of the Meilung group ; and the Chinese are so 
entirely devoted to pleasure, so much engrossed by superstition, such victims to actual 
romance, that they associate every picturesque spot amidst these cloud-capp'd pinnacles 
with a legend of pleasure or pain — a duty enjoined by custom — a pilgrimage dictated by 
caprice or idleness. 

Many of the princes of Woo have acquired celebrity by their chivalrous bearing, by 
their disinterested patriotism, their great wisdom, or their solid learning. One, however, 
is remembered with more feeling: his story has found more sympathy than the sorrows 
or the sufferings of his kindred, from its interesting and romantic character. Too-fan 
was a prince of undaunted courage, great personal graces, and cultivated mind. Whe- 
ther he was disgusted with the insipidity of a courtier's life, or was inspired naturally 
with a love of wandering, is uncertain ; but one day, after he had reached the age of 



twenty, he left his royal home to enjoy the pleasures of the chase, and did not return 
at the accustomed time. Couriers were despatched in all directions, and public procla- 
mations issued, offering immense rewards to any one who could reveal the mystery of his 
sudden disappearance — but in vain. At length the emperor abandoned all hope of recover- 
ing his favourite son, went through the prescribed forms of wailing for an heir deceased, 
and appointed a successor to the lost but loved Too-fan. Time rolled its ceaseless 
course, and Hoo-fan, lately elected successor to the throne, accompanied by a retinue of 
courtiers, proceeded to hunt in the valleys and amidst the rocks of Woo-tang ; but the 
sportsmen being separated by the chances of the chase, the royal heir missed his compa- 
nions, and rode in search of them down a sequestered glen, until he was exhausted 
by fatigue, and apprehensive of being overtaken by the darkness of night. In this 
distressing situation, a young female, modestly attired, approached him, inquired the 
occasion of his so little expected visit to that unfrequented spot, and invited him to 
alight, and take shelter in her lowly dwelling. Astonished at her exquisite beauty, at 
the kind yet unembarrassed manner in which she offered to extend the rites of hospitality 
to a stranger, Hoo-fan for awhile was not able to reply : attributing his silence to fatigue, 
she at once called for assistance, which was answered by the appearance of a young man 
at the cottage door, who immediately advanced, and con ucted the wanderer in. 

Here the prince passed a night not of rest but distraction, although every effort that 
hospitality and benevolence could dictate was employed to reconcile him, and safe 
guidance to the precincts of his well-known hunting-ground, promised him on the 
morrow. But the surpassing beauty of his benefactress had made an impression on his 
hearty that reason could never efface; and his elevated rank induced him to believe, that 
it was not in mortal power to prevent him from one day calling her his own. This, 
however, was a fatal folly, and he lived just long enough to regret the error of such ungo- 
vernable passion. Perceiving that the beautiful mountaineer was the wife of the cottager, 
he proposed at once to purchase her, and increased his price to such an extravagant 
amount, that his host at length concluded that folly, or madness, could alone have 
prompted him to this singular request ; leading him, accordingly, to the limit of his 
lonely vale, he bade him be happ)', and farewell. 

These last words found no echo in the heart of Hoo-fan, who was henceforth to 
become the prey of a lawless and a hopeless passion ; and, proceeding rather as his 
animal carried than himself conducted, at length returned to his companions, who were 
overjoyed at again beholding their royal leader. 

Changed in his very nature by the flame that withered up all his moral feelings, 
Hoo-fan now began to plot the destruction of the peasant of Woo-tang, that he might 
remove what he deemed the only impediment to the possession of his fair companion ; and 
for this purpose, approaching his imperial father, he laid before him a grievance which 
he said ought to be immediately redressed. He told him how a bold rebel, of whose 
exact name he was uncertain, but whose secret home he knew, in defiance of imperial 
pleasure, continually hunted in the royal domains ; and prayed permission to suppress 
the offence by punishing the offender. His request being granted, Hoo-fan set out, 


with a chosen few of his profligate associates, and reaching the once happy valley of 
Woo-tang, acquainted the cottager, who had treated him so hospitably when his life 
was in his power, that information of his predatory habits having reached the imperial 
throne, he had been deputed to inquire into the circumstances. Ingratitude, and a still 
deeper contempt for his fellow-men, for a moment overpowered the innocent victim, 
who had not passed unnoticed the attention with which Hoo-fan had regarded his 
faithful wife ; but, recovering himself quickly, he formed his resolution. " Great 
prince," said he, " allow me to give instructions to my dearly-loved wife, for the arrange- 
ments of our cottage during my absence, after which I shall obediently attend you." 
The prince withdrew, leaving the afflicted wife to hear the last fond words which 
the partner of her solitude was ever, as Hoo-fan purposed, to whisper in her ear; but a 
watchful Providence had decreed far otherwise. " When I depart," said the husband 
calmly, " with prince Hoo-fan, and his satellites, do you, my dear wife, ascend yon hill, 
and hasten to the imperial palace by the shortest way ; tell the chief officer of the 
court to bear this girdle, with the bright diamond that adorns it, to the emperor, 
wherever he may be ; adding, that the owner is now on the way to an ignominious 
death, by the imperial order, and that the imperial presence alone can save him. 
Speed, and may Fo, the god of the faithful and the fond, befriend you." 

Hoo-fan having told the emperor that such an offender did exist, must necessarily 
have inflicted punishment upon him for the pretended crime, in somewhat of a public 
manner, unless one of his infamous coadjutors should have boldness enough to supersede 
this necessity by assassination. This, however, would have been an attempt of the 
most perilous kind, the captive being a man of gigantic stature, extraordinary muscu- 
larity, and possessing the fleetness and activity of those very animals of the chase, 
which he was accused of pursuing and overtaking on foot. He was conducted, there- 
fore, to the nearest tribunal, the summit of a lofty rock, which was itself enclosed 
between two huge perpendicular masses ; and on this plateau, in the eye of just heaven, 
the iniquitous trial and punishment were to take place. 

The party passed out of the retired valley, crossed the stream of the Kang-kiang-ho, 
by two rustic bridges, that span the deep ravine through which it tumbles, and reaching 
the plateau on the summit, went through the contemplated mockery of a trial, by which 
the prisoner was condemned to be thrown from the beetling cliff' into the abyss below. 
The pause that followed this dreadful announcement was suddenly interrupted by the 
appearance of a cavalcade, numerous, coming on at full speed, and with all the character 
of a hostile troop. One horseman, better mounted than the rest, rode madly into the 
ring formed for the tribunal, exclaiming, " Suspend the sentence, stop the execution, as 
you value your lives — the emperor ! the emperor !" A few moments more, and the 
emperor stood amidst the traitorous band who had abused his confidence. " Hoo-fan," 
said he, " you have forfeited my affections, disgraced the name of a prince of Woo, and 
are no longer worthy of my protection. Go, take the place of the captive, whom your 
vicious passions would have put to a painful and most horrid death ; and, to aggravate 
your disappointment, I adopt him to be the heir to my throne and kingdom." Having 


concluded this solemn decree, he threw aside the restraints of majesty, and rushing 
towards the prisoner, fell upon his manly bosom, exclaiming, " My son, my lost son, 
Too-fan !" 

On the spot where this affecting incident is said to have taken place, a temple of Fo 
has been erected, in which an altar, or tang, is dedicated to the memory of Too-fan, and 
from which Woo-tang takes its abiding name. 



Fling ye the silken curtain wide. 
With gold restrained, with purple dyed, 
And let the colours wander o'er 
The polished walls, the marble floor. 
White are the walls, but o'er them wind 
Rich patterns curiously designed. 

The Khan or Kathay. 

Imperial luxury appears, in China, to be insatiable. There is not a minor political 
division of this vast empire, unadorned by some palace, or villa, or hall of majesty ; and 
the display of fancy exhibited in their arrangements is only inferior to the gorgeousness 
with which the designs are executed. Yuen-min-Yuen is perhaps the most extensive 
and sumptuous of all these abodes of magnificence and power; and it is also better 
known to Europeans, from the reception, within its marble halls, of foreign embassies, 
than the travelling-palace of Hoo-kew-shan, and other picturesque localities. 

A noble park, improperly called the Gardens of Yuen-min-Yuen, is situated 
about three leagues north-west of Peking, and occupies an area of eleven square miles. 
Here are no less than thirty distinct imperial residences, each surrounded with all the 
necessary buildings for lodging the numerous state officers, servants, and artificers, 
that are required, not only on occasions of court and public days, but for the regular 
conduct of the household. Each of these assemblages includes so great a number of 
separate structures, that at a little distance the appearance is precisely that of a com- 
fortable village, and of tolerable extent. The mode of building possessing few traits 
of permanence, on a closer examination a character of meanness, and a poverty of 
invention, are at once discovered ; and even here, in the most luxurious and spacious 
of all the imperial homes, it is to the amazing number of fanciful huts, and decorated 
sheds, rather than to their stateliness or durable pretensions, that any magnificence is 





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Amongst these thirty groups of painted palaces, the Hall of Audience is the most 
conspicuous for its magnitude, ornament, and proportions. Elevated on a platform of 
granite, about four feet above the surrounding level, an oblong structure stands, one 
hundred and twenty feet in length, forty-five in breadth, and in height twenty. A row 
of large wooden columns surrounds the cella, and supports a heavy projecting roof; 
while an inner tier, of less substantial pillars, marks the area of the chambers : the 
intervals of the latter, being filled with brick-work to the height of four feet, form 
the enclosing screen or walls of the chief apartment. Above these the space is occupied 
with lattice work, covered with oiled paper, and capable of being thrown open, when the 
temperature of the hall demands it. On the ceiling are described squares, circles, 
polygons, and other mathematical figures, in various combinations, and charged with 
endless shades of gaudy colours. The floor is a more chaste piece of workmanship, 
consisting of slabs of a beautiful grey marble, disposed chequer-wise, and with the 
most accurate and perfect precision in the jointing. In a recess at the centre of one 
end stands the imperial throne, composed entirely of cedar richly and delicately carved, 
the canopy being supported by wooden pillars painted with red, green, and blue colours. 
Two large brass kettle-drums, occasionally planted before the door, and there beaten on 
the approach of the emperor, form part of the furniture of the hall, the rest consisting of 
Chinese paintings, an English chiming-clock, made by Clarke of Leadenhall-street, and 
a pair of circular fans formed of the wings of the argus-pheasant, and mounted on 
polished ebony poles. These stand on each side of the throne, above which are inscribed, 
in the Chinese letter and language, "True, great, refulgent, splendid," and beneath 
these pompous words, the much more pithy one — " Hapjmiess." 

The columns in all cases — within the hall, beneath the imperial canopy, and 
those that sustain the overhanging roof — are without capitals ; and the only substitute 
for an architrave is the bressumer, or horizontal beam on which the projecting rafters of 
the roof recline. Below this architrave and between the columns, wooden screens are 
interposed, painted with the most glaring hues of the brightest colours, profusely 
intermixed with gilding. Over the whole of this fancy-work a net of gilded wire 
is stretched, to protect it against the invasion of swallows, and other enemies to the 
eaves and the cornices of buildings. 

The grounds around the many palaces are either broken by nature, or formed by art 
into hill and dale, diversified with wood and water — the latter enclosed by banks so 
ingeniously thrown up, that they represent the fortuitous workmanship of the free hand 
of creative power. Bold rocky promontories are seen projecting into a lake, and valleys 
also retiring from them, some, deep-wooded bosoms — others, scenes of richest cultivation. 
Wherever pleasure-temples, or grottoes, or pavilions for rest, are erected, the views from 
each are evidently studied productions of some one eminent in the delightful art of land- 
scape gardening. In the arrangement of trees, not only the magnitude to which the 
species ultimately attains, but even the tints of the foliage, are maturely considered in 
the composition of the picture. 

Ml. c 




" 'Tis mad idolatry, 
That makes the service greater than the god." 


On the south banks of the Cho-keang, or Pearl river, and on the opposite side from 
the city of Canton, is a rural district, much frequented by visiters and residents 
for recreation and change of air, but by a still greater number of pilgrims, who come 
hither to bow the knee at the shrine of Buddha. Emerging from the narrow filthy 
streets, and escaping from their no.\ious atmosphere, the bridge of Honan, with its 
quaint architecture, conducts to the little isle itself, a paradise in comparison with the 
busy city to which it is united. Here the scenery is peculiarly pleasing, and the 
luxuriant trees that adorn the banks, that dip into the stream, that spread their grateful 
shelter over the fields, animate the picture by the amazing variety in their shades and 
their colours. 

Here also is the most famous of all Buddhist temples in China, the very cathedral of 
that contemptible idolatry. Standing on the margin of the water, it is most frequently 
approached by boats; and the multitude that is in perpetual motion at the landing- 
place, is calculated to give a very low estimate of Chinese character. It consists of 
the aged, infirm, and infantine, coming to ask pardon of a block of wood, for sins and 
omissions in this world, and to beg liberation from the torments of swords, and axes, 
and bowstrings in the world to come. Another and more unimportant portion of the 
crowd is intent on over-charging, on pilfering, and abusing the confidence of these 
dotards, whom they have, almost pardonably, concluded to be deserving of no better lot. 
The reasoning, however, is obviously vicious, which would pretend to prove that folly 
in one party, justifies dishonesty in another: but, what is in China the standard of virtue 
or vice — the test of truth or falsehood — the boundary of good or evil? 

A small comfortable-looking assemblage of doors, and screens, and gables, and 
projecting eaves, and concave roofs, and grotesque animals, gives to the landing-place 
the character of a country ale-house. Here, however, is the place of entrance to 
a vista of majestic banyan trees, that appear to have resisted the assaults of the 
elements for centuries of time, and by their venerable aspect, supply, in some degree, 
the want of antiquity in the flimsy, temporary sheds, that lie hid beneath them. Giants 
of wood guard the next doorway, with becoming vigilance, and terrific aspect ; and 
whoever passes these formidable warders, will find another enclosure within, intersected 
by flagged walks, that lead amidst the trees, to colonnades, filled with gods and monsters 



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of every sect and profession. Beyond the second square are situated three grand lialls, 
appropriated to idols of greater costhness, and still more hideous aspect. Within the 
central are the three famous images, illustrative of the triune manifestations of Buddha — 
the past, present, and future. Kwo-keu-fuh, whose reign is past, is on the right ; We-lae- 
fuh, whose reign is yet to come, on the left ; the centre being occupied by Heen-tsa-fuh, 
whose power is now supposed to regulate human destinies. The monsters, although 
in a sitting posture, are each eleven feet in height. Before these " three precious 
Buddha " stand tables, or altars, on which are placed joss-sticks, censers, perfumes, 
flowers, ornaments, and sometimes rare fruits; and, on either side are arranged 
eighteen images of the primitive disciples of Buddha, supposed to be resuscitated 
emperors of the Mantchou-Tartar race. The side walls are decorated with silken cur- 
tains, embroidered, in letters of gold and silver thread, with mottos and precepts from 
the works of Confucius. A number of pillars, gilt and painted, sustain the roof, from 
the cross-beams of which several hundred lanterns depend, whose muffled rays diifuse 
a mysterious light around, not badly calculated to aid the solemn character which 
the labours of the priests are incessant in endeavouring to impart. 

The several cellae, or places of worship, within the sanctuarj', are all of nearly 
equal capacity, and adorned with an equal variety of objects of vertu; and, besides these 
devotional apartments, a very extensive monastery belongs to the temple, where some 
hundred priests are comfortably lodged. Considerable distinctions appear to exist 
between the grades or classes of this monastic order, for, some of them are clothed 
in costly habits, and exhibit unequivocal symptoms of having " fared sumptuously every 
day ;" while others are squalid, emaciated, and poverty-stricken. There cannot be 
a more obvious inconsistency in the government of any public body, than is presented 
by the wretchedness that marks the appearance of a large number of this Buddhist 
fraternity, and the luxury in which the sacred hogs indulge in the consecrated styes 
beneath the very roof of the temple. These favoured animals are fed and tended 
with the utmost care, and, when they have literally eaten themselves to death, are 
laid, with much solemnity, in a mausoleum appropriated to their remains. 

In Buddhist worship, the priests, who have a direct interest in its maintenance, 
perform all the functions of their calling with the most becoming solemnity, and 
the ceremony itself is exceedingly imposing; but the people do not appear to feel 
the influence of example, and look on with indifference, while the most venerable 
amongst the priesthood knocks his aged brow repeatedly against a sacred flagstone in 
front of the altar. Indeed there cannot possibly be any wide-spread faith in 
the creed of Buddhism, even in the empire of Cathay; for, in addition to their total 
indifference to its ceremonies, Buddhists occasionally appropriate the very temples of 
worship to profane purposes. On Lord Amherst's return from the court of Peking, 
he visited Canton, and the authorities of that great city, although his lordship had 
been unsuccessful in his mission, did not hesitate to provide accommodations for the 
embassy in the great temple of Ilonan. The triune were removed from their pedestals, 
and transported to a lodging on the other side of the river; while the chief cell, 


or choir, or aisle of the temple, was converted into a banqueting hall for the 
foreigners. This fact did not escape the vigilance of the savars in that distinguished 
cortege, who have judiciously remarked, " that the conversion of a people so slenderly 
attached to the predominant religion, would not be attended with difficulty, if truth 
were on the tongues of those who undertook it." 


And, as the brand he poised and sway'd, 
" I never knew but one," he said, 
" Whose stalwart arm might brook to wield 
A sword like this in battle-field." 


In the mythological or romantic ages of every eountrj', personal strength commanded 
a respect which is now confined to the few remaining nations that have evaded 
civilization. The victory is no longer to the strong ; intellect, civilization, science 
have obtained a signal triumph over mere brute or animal force ; and the prowess 
of Ajax, or of Coeur de Leon, the unfading theme of the troubador, will soon be 
neglected by the writer of history. However, conspicuous excellence in some one 
respect, whether it arise from a pure unmixed boon of nature, or from the meritorious 
labours of the individual, cannot fail in attracting the attention of a chronicler worthy 
of the subject. 

Physical ability seems to have been employed as a test of royal origin, of fitness to rule, 
of military elevation, from the earliest period ; but, the criterion in individual cases was 
different When Ulysses returned to his sea-girt isle, his halls were filled with suitors 
for the hand of his faithful queen. Remonstrance would naturally have been vain; 
his altered appearance, and the protracted period of his wanderings, forming so strong 
a presumption against personal identity ; but when, seizing the bow, which none else 
could bend, and with — 

one hand aloft display'd 

The bending horns, and one the string essay 'd, 

he shot the arrow through the mystic rings, his claims to royal ancestry were no 
longer disputed, even by those who offered violence to his resumption of the throne. 

The respect in which muscular strength was held by our Norman lords, may be 
estimated from their long adherence to the practice of single combat, an ordeal still 
known as " the wager of battle." A remarkable instance of this kind occurred in the 
reign of our King John. Some doubt existing as to the English title to a town in 
Normandy, Philip of France proposed that it should be decided by wager of battle, and 



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his challenge was readily accepted. In all England there was none so famous for 
courage, and swordmanship, and gigantic strength, as John de Courcey ; but through 
the artifices of his rival, de Lacey, he had been falsely accused and imprisoned in the 
Tower of London. Called from his dungeon by a mean and merciless monarch, he 
answered, " My country, but not my king, shall have my services." 

The field and the lists were now appointed, galleries were erected, and the princes 
and nobility of both kingdoms seated as spectators, when the French champion sallied 
forth, took one turn, and then rested himself in his tent. De Courcey next appeared, and 
went through a similar ceremony. And now the trumpets sounded the grand charge, and 
the champions issuing from their rests, advanced gallantly to the combat ; but, according 
to the custom of the joust, they first reined in and viewed each other searchingly. The 
stern aspect of De Courcey, his giant form, his steady seat, his perfect command of 
horse and weapon, struck terror to the Frenchman's heart, who calmly essayed as if 
to take another turn, and display his prowess; but, when the next trumpet sounded, and 
De Courcey drew his trusty sword, the French champion broke the barrier, and fled the 
field. The trumpets proclaimed the victory of the English king; but Philip pro- 
tested against such claim, unless De Courcey gave some indisputable evidence of his 
surpassing strength. Accordingly, a stake being set up, and a shirt of mail and helmet 
of steel placed thereon, the champion was directed to prove his sword upon this new adver- 
sary. Casting a stern glance at both monarchs as they stood beside each other, he raised 
his sinewy arm, and, with a single blow, cleft the helm, shirt, and stake, so far down 
that none but himself was able to pull out the weapon. King John, astonished at this 
extraordinary proof of De Courcey's chivalrous qualifications, restored him to his title 
and rank and possessions ; adding, that he was prepared also to grant him whatever 
favour he might prefer. " Your generosity," replied the victor, " has placed me beyond 
any desire of further riches : I shall only ask, therefore, that it may be permitted to 
myself and my successors to remain covered in the presence of royalty." His request 
was granted, and, to this day, his descendants, the Earls of Kinsale, enjoy exclusively 
the privilege of wearing their hats in the presence of the sovereigns of Great Britain. 

Another Irish giant and chieftain, but of more genuine Hibernian origin than De 
Courcey, exhibited his military qualifications by a proof still more unequivocal — this was 
Fingal, or Fin-mac-cumhal, general of the Irish militia. When this puissant soldier was 
setting out upon an expedition against the enemies of his country, a mysterious-looking 
person joined the cavalcade, and entered into familiar converse with the chief. They 
very naturally discoursed of the profession of arms, and the man of mystery, in the 
vehemence of argument, exclaimed, " Unless your sword can cleave that mountain, it 
shall not subdue the multitude of your enemies." Fingal immediately smote the rugged 
cliff, and cleft it to the very base.* 

A tradition, preserved in the San-tsae-to-hwey, gives the following version of the 
Proof-rock legend of Hoo-kew-shan.f " Heuen-tih, prince of Shuh, one of the three 

• Vide Wright's Guide to Wicklovv — Glendalougb. 

I How-kew-shan, a travelling palace of the emperor, is in the province of Keang-nan. Vide vol. i- p. 14, el seq. 


rival kingdoms, was invited by Sun-kwan, the designing monarch of Eastern-woo, to visit 
his territories, and espouse his sister; but the real object of this flattering invitation 
was to obtain possession of the prince's person. Heuen-tih, an honourable and unsus- 
pecting man, adopting the advice of Kung-ming, called also in history, Choo-ho-leang, 
a sort of Chinese Machiavelli, cheerfully passed the frontiers, and proceeded to the palace 
of the treacherous Sun-kwan ; where his manly appearance was highly pleasing to the 
queen-dowager, although at first indignant that she had not been consulted in the 
choice of a husband for her royal daughter. A grand banquet was prepared in honour 
of the princely guest; but the wicked host caused the pavilion in which it was spread 
to be closely surrounded by a body of armed men, intending to seize the prince, and 
throw him into a dungeon. This iniquitous attempt, however, was completely frustrated 
by the personal bravery of a single man, the gallant aide-de-camp of Heuen-tih, who, 
perceiving that treachery was intended, suddenly entered the royal saloon with his sword 
drawn, and, placing himself before his master, declared that they should not be made 
prisoners alive. This resolute conduct arrested the project, and the queen-dowager 
being made acquainted with the circumstance, did not hesitate to upbraid her son with 
having dishonoured his royal race, violated the rights of hospitality, and blighted the fair 
prospects of a sister's happiness. 

He who had been guilty of such baseness felt little reluctance in employing false- 
hood in his defence ; and, having given a specious explanation, protested that himself 
and his minister, Cha-yn, were ready to complete their promise in the most entire 
manner, by conferring the hand of the princess Sun-foo-jin upon their valued guest 
This, however, was but the first movement of a second plot for the prince's destruction, 
for they now calculated upon his becoming so much intoxicated by the pleasures of 
a luxurious court, that opportunity would not long be wanted for effecting their base 

It was immediately after his escape from the dagger of the assassin, that Heuen-tih, 
having laid aside his robes of ceremony, was walking in front of the palace, when he 
observed a lai-ge rock lying beside the broad pathway. His extraordinary fortunes 
occupied his thoughts at the moment, and, drawing his sword, and looking up 
to heaven, he said, ' If I, Lew-pei, am destined to revisit my capital, King-choo, and 
acquire entire possession of the empire, may I cleave this rock in two with a single 
blow !' While he yet spoke, he smote the rock, from which a perfect blaze of light 
flashed forth, and cut it in two. Sun-kwan, who stood behind him unperceived, and 
closely watched his movements, now advanced, and inquired what cause of anger he 
could possibly entertain towards the stone. ' My years,' replied he, ' are now three or 
four lustre, yet I am unable to defend my country from the invader : this reflection has 
filled my heart with pain and sorrow. The honourable alliance which I have just formed 
with your illustrious family has again, however, awakened my ambition, and I resolved on 
asking heaven to give me, as a sign or prognostic that I should one day defeat my enemy 
Tsaou, power to split this rock at a single blow of my trusty sword ; and heaven has 
granted my request.' 












<^:f 5; 



The false-hearted Sun-kwan, believing the story to be a mere invention, resolved 
to test its authenticity; declaring, that he too had asked heaven for a similar sign, 
as to whether he should partake of the glory of subduing the grand usurper, and of retaking 
King-choo ; and that he also would prove his sword upon the rock of fate. He spoke, 
and, letting fall his shining blade, the rock was completely rent from top to bottom. 
Ten characters, graven in the stone, commemorate the extraordinary event, and an 
elaborate native poem celebrates the praises of the princes, whose fate was so myste- 
riously connected with the Proof-sword rock. 


Bare the rugged heights ascending 

Bring to mind the past, 
When the weary voyage ending 

Was the anchor cast. 

L. E. L. 

The scenery at the entrance of this noble tidal river is truly magnificent, from the 
loftiness and forms of the hills, and from the broad expanse of its waters, which are almost 
constantly in a state of agitation. These naturally picturesque features are still further 
improved by the construction of irregular works of defence upon the most conspicuous 
eminences. At a little distance, the embattled tower, bristling with artillery, resembles 
the strong hold of some powerful chieftain, who is always in an attitude of defence against 
assaults, of which his own aggressions have been the occasion. The currents that are 
caused by the obstruction of the Chusan Islands, by the efflux of the Ta-hea's waters, 
and the influx of a tide setting always strongly, produce and maintain a surface of con- 
siderable agitation, and whose navigation by boats is uniformly attended with danger. 
But these interruptions tend in no moderate degree to heighten the picturesque cha- 
racter and solemn effect of the splendid panorama which the whole estuary presents. 

It is now upwards of a century, since the British merchant first became acquainted 
with the advantageous commercial position of Nin-po-foo, and felt the regret to which 
disappointed industry becomes necessarily a prey, arising from the inactivity of his 
own government, and stupidity of the Chinese. In the year 1701, we had a factory 
at Ting-hae, and were allowed to look along the highway of commerce that led to 
Ning-po; but entrance into, or direct trade with that noble city, was forbidden, under 
pain of the bowstring, or the axe, or the squeezing apparatus. Many opportunities, 
however, were then afibrded of forming acquaintances, and even friendships, with 
the most eminent of the Ning-po mandarins; for many, and those the wealthiest, sated 
with business, sought rest and retirement from the cares of the world, on the beautiful 


little island of Kin-tan, which rises somewhat precipitously in the emhouchure of the 
Ta-hea ; and immediately in front of which a British man-of-war is represented, in the 
accompanying view, towed by a steam frigate through the rapids. There British 
subjects were permitted to land, and the indulgence led to that intercourse, which was 
ever afterwards remembered with pleasurable feelings. 

One of the headlands that look down upon the entrance of the Ta-hea, is covered 
with tea-shrubs to its summit, and the mulberry tree constitutes the chief ornament of 
the scene on every side. These indigenous products have conferred the greater portion 
of their wealth upon the inhabitants of this district, which is the very centre of their 
profitable cultivation. Here, therefore, foreigners were first induced to seek for 
the privilege of trading with the natives — silk and tea, China's boasted products, being 
obtainable in a better condition, and at half the cost they bring at Canton. But folly, 
bigotry, and cowardice repudiated the enterprise of Europeans, and an imperial edict 
not only denied admission to Ning-po, but expelled our trade from Chusan Islands, 
and limited it strictly to Canton. Against this illiberality an appeal was made in 
17.36, by a party who chartered the "Normanton," and attempted to conciliate the 
authorities of Ning-po ; but their resolution and perseverance only exasperated the 
mandarins, who now destroyed the factories of Chusan, and prohibited their countrymen 
from supplying foreign ships with provisions. 

Even this rejection and discouragement failed to extinguish British commercial 
enterprise, for, Mr. Flint ventured to renew negociations at Ning-po, although warned 
of the perilous consequences of such an attempt by the Cantonese authorities. His 
efforts proving abortive, he proceeded to Peking, where he was deceived by the hypocri- 
tical mandarins, with assurances of the most friendly character ; and, on his return to 
Canton, contrary to every obligation of truth, honour, or national dignity, he was seized, 
transferred to Macao, where he was thrown into prison, and, after two years' incarcera- 
tion, sent back to England. 

Lord Macartney visited this Chinese archipelago, and met with a continuance of 
that courtesy, which his prudence and address elsewhere obtained for him amongst these 
very prejudiced people ; but, their apprehension of his discovering how accessible Nan- 
king was to a British fleet, induced them to misrepresent the true character of the 
Ta-hea estuary. That embassy, therefore, added nothing to our knowledge of this valuable 
inlet, decidedly the most advantageously situated for commerce with foreigners, amongst 
all the populous places of the empire. 

An expedition undertaken in the ship Amherst, augmented our hydrographic 
information of the Chinese coast, and searched the recesses of the Ning-po harbour ;* 
but the achievements of the late war, in which China succumbed so humbly to British 
power, have opened the harbour and the river, and the trade of this beautifully-seated 
city, not to Britain only, but to the civilized world. 

• Vide " City of Ning-po, from the river," vol. ii.. p. 67, et seq. 






^ J 









Haste, bring tlieni forth ! and raze 

From turret to foundation-stone, the keep 
Whence rose no song of praise 

From weary captives wont to doubt and weep. 

The Christian Captive. 

In many places' the banks of the Canton or Pearl river are eminently picturesque, and 
the separation of its waters into numerous channels, while it perplexes the foreign 
navigator, is a source of endless gratification and real advantage to those acquainted 
with the different branches, and who dwell along their refreshing borders. IMile after 
mile of the river littorale below Canton is clothed with the densest and most brilliant 
foliage, save where population equally compact has hewn out a site for a settlement. 
There villages peep forth from the thiclv dark shelter of an ancient grove, which at 
one time is in immediate contact with the grotesque dwellings, at another removed only 
by the area of an orchard, a garden, or a pleasure-ground. The noblest forest-trees that 
grow in China are intermixed with fruit-trees of rarity and richness; amongst these are 
the peach, almond, plum, and many whose blossoms impart to the landscape a colouring 
that even Chinese dexterity often fails to imitate effectually. Orange, citron, and other 
varieties of Oriental fruits, luxuriate along the gently waving banks of these sunny 
waters, with a bloom and a beauty that art and cultivation in vain endeavour to attain. 

An islet that seems to float in the channel, called by Europeans the Macao Passage, 
serves as the foundation for the fortified pagoda of the Tai-wang-kow. A tower of 
four stories is enclosed by a strongly built curtain of granite stone, pierced with loop- 
holes, and finished with battlements. The primitive object of the Pagoda is not easily 
explicable on rational principles; but, in connection with the Chinese system of military 
discipline, and their art of war, admits of explanation. From the elevation of its turreted 
stories, watchmen can discover the approaching enemy, and give the word of command to 
the gunners within the ramparts. This plan, however, is subject to one inconvenience, 
namely, discovery of the fort itself by the foe, and, therefore, exposure of the Pagoda 
itself to the fire of an enemy's ship, which might throw down the whole building upon 
the gunners at its foot. In this case, the gingalls, matchlocks, and men of all arms, 
would in all probability be buried in the ruins. The area of the island, about an 
English acre, is dedicated to military works, with the exception of the space occupied 
by some lofty trees of the banyan species, whose shelter proves particularly grateful to 
the soldier sinking under the weight of bis armour, and who would otherwise often be 
exhausted by the scorching rays of a tropical sun. The practice of embowering a fortress 



is not confined toTai-wang-kow,'it prevails universally in Chinese defensive posts, engi- 
neers being of opinion, that the shade of a banyan tree will protect the soldier not only 
from the burning rays of the sun, but also from the red artillery of an enemy. And 
it was this principle of seIf■^sufficiency or self-deception, so prevalent in this vast empire, 
that induced the erection of a pagoda in the middle of a battery, which, to be useful, 
should be concealed, — the author of the design imagining that its haughty height 
would warn the enemy against too near an approach. 

Upon the first appearance of a rupture with China, this picturesque defence was 
occupied by a detachment of the royal marines, who kept entire possession of it until 
the resumption of hostilities on the 23d of June, 1841. Although within reach of assist- 
ance from Canton, from which it is only two miles distant, no resistance was offered to 
our occupation ; yet our oflScers assert, that had they been attacked in turn, they could 
have repulsed the best efforts of the enemy to dislodge them. As a toll-house or watch- 
tower, the Tai-wang is valuable, and in other hands, by its means, the approach of an 
enemy to Canton might be successfully impeded. When our troops surprised it, a com- 
munication was formed with both banks of 'the river by rafts that completely obstructed 
the passages. Each flotilla, or rather section of the pontoon, consisted of ten layers 
of timber, ten feet square, strongly bound together with iron bolts, and anchored 
securely at each corner. There was little ingenuity in the design, and when our troops 
entered the fort, and occupied it, the control of the clumsy impediment passed into 
their hands, to the prejudice of its authors. 

But the destination of the Tai-wang will henceforth be changed : the clang of arms 
will no more be heard within its towers, nor the flash of artillery be witnessed from its 
ramparts ; taught the blessings of peace by the horrors of war, these civilized idolaters 
now leave the highway of commerce, which the Almighty foi'med for the happiness of 
his creatures, open to the merchants and mariners of all nations. 


Cards were superfluous here, with all the tricks 
That idleness has ever yet contrived, 
To fill the void of an unfurnished brain. 
To palliate dulness, and give time a shove. 


The position which females occupy in society may be very fairly taken as a test of 
civilization, in each respective nation : wherever the moral and intellectual powers of 
the gentler sex are held in estimation, that country will be found to enjoy such laws as 
promote the happiness of the people ; wherever personal charms constitute the only 









ground of love or admiration, as in many Asiatic governments, there tyranny and slavery 
prevail extensively. Neither do the lavish gifts of nature secure a happy home to their 
possessor, or subdue the fierce spirit of her absolute lord ; on the contrary, surpassing 
beauty, in unchristian climes, rivets the chains of slavery more firmly, elevates the harem- 
walls to a more hopeless height, excludes the society of friends or companions, and shuts 
in the luckless victim from the world for ever. And while submission to the caprice of 
a tyrant is the captive's wisest policy, her sole remaining lot, even this great sacrifice 
does not mitigate the ferocity of his nature, or the rudeness of his habits, for often are 
these helpless habitants of the Oriental harem immolated, to allay a groundless jealousy, 
or make room for a more favoured rival ; and oftener still are the most dreadful assassi- 
nations perpetrated by tyrants, whose uncontrollable passions are inflamed by the bare 
suspicion of infidelity. Hence it follows, that where the softer sex are retained in a 
state of bondage, and denied participation in social duties and social intercourse, there 
the habits of the people are necessarily rude — there civilization is inevitably checked in 
its humanizing progress. 

It has been remarked, that in England, science, arts, and civilization have advanced 
more rapidly since the reign of Elizabeth, than in the period between her government 
and the Conquest — a result attributed to the altered estimation of female character that 
has ever since prevailed. Previous to that glorious epoch in our country's annals, 
a custom existed in Wales of selling wives, or rather brides, to husbands ; in Scotland, 
women were prohibited by its uncouth laws from appearing as evidences in a court 
of justice ; and, in our eighth Henry's reign, women and apprentices were prevented 
from reading the New Testament in English. Since these rude restrictions have been 
removed, and female intellect emancipated, see to what a rank amongst the nations of 
the earth Great Britain has attained ! It was while a woman filled the throne that the 
invincible armada was scattered and destroyed — while a woman reigned, that English 
literature acquired that character conveyed in the epithet of Augustan — and, it was during 
a woman's reign, that China, the oldest of nations, was vanquished by the arms of 
Britain. It should not be forgotten, that a civilized, a christian, and a chaste commu- 
nity, is more likely to be governed ably and honestly under the softer than the sterner 
sex, for, in one case, the most distinguished statesmen, in the other, the most intriguing 
females of the aristocracy, influence the patronage of the court. 

A species of middle state, between rudeness and civilization, is the portion of a 
Chinese lady of quality. Inhumanly deprived of the use of her limbs, whenever she 
desires to go abroad she is subject to a species of concealment in a close sedan, similar 
to the arrhuba of Mohammedan odaliques ; and so strictly is this incognito observed, that 
less wealthy persons keep covered wheelbarrows for their captive wives — not to prevent 
the winds of heaven from visiting them too roughly, but to deprive them of the homage 
of earthly eyes. Notwithstanding all this jealous care, it is remarkable that females in 
the humbler ranks are treated with little respect: one class are the flowers of the garden, 
the other of the forest ; one are fed, and lodged, and cherished, with all the care and 
cost and jealousy that belong to the conservatory — the other left to waste their sweetness 


on the desert air, or else spurned soon after by the rude hand that phicked them. Often 
do we see the poor man's wife labouring in the fields of rice, the farm of cotton, the 
nurseries of silk, her infant being safely tied upon her back, while her husband is 
engaged in the excitements of smoking or of gambling. 

There is but one supreme mistress of a mandarin's palace, and to her authority all 
others of her sex, within the limits of the pavilion, must acknowledge entire submission. 
To the disgrace of this ancient empire, however, polygamy does exist here, although in 
a form more mitigated than in the Turkish dominions. Amongst the graceful cabinets 
counted along with the ladies' apartments, there is usually one arranged as a chapel of 
worship, or a hall of ancestors. In general, a figure of Tien-sing, the Queen of Heaven, 
is placed in a niche at the end, various decorations being introduced all around ; and 
a splendid curtain of embroidered silk falling in front, secures retirement and perfect 
seclusion for the votaries who may be disposed to enter and to worship. Having no 
sabbath, either for the purposes of religion or of rest, the Chinese feel a secret conso- 
lation in these domestic chapels, where they pour forth the real sentiments of their souls, 
before that God whose existence their innate ideas prove, but of whose nature and pro- 
perties they still are ignorant. With the inconsistency that seems to characterize all 
Chinese customs, and distinguish them from those of other nations, it is in front of this 
very capella, and in the very presence of their little golden protectress, that the ladies of 
every family uniformly seat themselves, to indulge in the amusement of card-playing. 
Denied so many other species of social enjoyment, none but the most rigid and fas- 
tidious could object to their indulgence in this ancient game — but who can be uncon- 
scious of the glaring contradiction which the choice of a playing-room discloses ? 

The variety of games known in China is endless ; and many of them require consider- 
able dexterity. In shape, the cards are longer and narrower than those in use amongst 
Europeans, and a pack includes a much larger number. When cards have lost their power 
of pleasing, the time is beguiled by the introduction of tobacco. Females, from the tender 
age of eight years, are initiated in this disgusting habit; and a little silken reticule is gene- 
rally attached to every lady's dress, to hold a pipe and a supply of tobacco. But these, and 
even less graceful employments, are pardonable, when the monotonous nature of their life 
of seclusion is remembered. Although less suspected, less enslaved, less degraded than 
Turkish females, yet the formality to which Chinese ladies are doomed is eminently tedious. 
Children, chief solace of a mother's retired and useful life, are in China placed under 
laws that outrage the best feelings of human nature. Female infants may be destroyed 
at the pleasure of the father — over children of the other sex, the law gives the parent 
absolute power ; hence, at the age of ten years, the boy is removed finally from the 
mother's surveillance, nor is he permitted after to visit the pavilion in which he was 
born — the scene in which his helplessness first found that care which a mother only 
knows how to bestow. Cut off, by a hateful code of regulations, from the opportunity 
of fulfilling her legitimate trust, the Chinese wife and mother is necessitated to have 
recourse to those means of filling up the great void in life which these privations have 
created. Painting, embroidery, the care of an aviary, the recreations of the garden and 








the pleasure grounds, occasional appeals to the little image that presides over the 
domestic altar, fond attentions to her children while they are permitted to remain with 
her, the game of chess when the number of fair captives is limited to two, but, when 
increased beyond that amount, the more popular amusement of cards, are called to the 
relief of those pangs which disappointments produce— those sorrows by which separation 
from the world is so often accompanied. 



Do but stand upon the foaming shore, 

The chiding billows seem to pelt the clouds ; 

The wind-shak'd surge, with high, and monstrous main, 

Seems to cast water on the burning bear. 

And quench the guards of the ever-fixed pole : 

I never did such molestation view 

On the enchafed Hood. 


In a previous description of the Great Wall of China,* the particular view here 
given is alluded to and described. There the only genuine drawings of this extra- 
ordinary work of art, that have ever been brought to Europe, are distinctly spoken of, 
and, from that description, the peculiarities of the present, the most interesting because 
the least known and most authentic, may be gathered. Our readers are aware, from 
a comparison of the ponderous volumes themselves, which detail the circumstances of the 
embassy, with the published notes of Lord Jocelyn, that Lord Macartney was misled 
as to the exact terminus of the Wen-Ji-tchang-tching ; and, the accompanying illustra- 
tion, taken by a draughtsman attached to one of the exploring expeditions, that 
visited the embouchure of the Pei-ho, previous to the conquest of China, not only 
places the fact beyond doubt, but gives the real position of the sea-extremity of the 
wall. From the deck of the war-steamer that navigated this savage sea, the Traitor's 
Gate was distinctly seen, midway between the mountains and the shore ; and this 
gratifying discovery is auxiliary to the settlement of a disputed point in Tartar 

The rude fierce aspect of the mountains, with their broken breasts and shattered 
pinnacles, is in accurate keeping with the stern character of the stormy sea that seems 
eternally struggling to approach their feet. Navigation here, by well-found barks, 
would not be attended with more than the common dangers of the sea ; but with such 
clumsy, ill-constructed vessels as the trading junk, the lottery of a sailor's life is filled 

* Vol. i. , pp. 29, et seq, 


with blanks. Exposed by their great height above the water, their sides invite the 
hurricane to invade them ; and, aided by the incompetence of the mariners, the 
elements obtain an easy victory. When a vessel leaves a port in the Gulf of Pe-che-li, 
it is usually concluded that her loss or her return is about equally probable ; so that if 
fortune favour her, a general rejoicing takes place amongst the owners of the cargo 
and the relatives of the crew, for an event so prosperous. It has been concluded, upon 
the most authentic information, that ten thousand mariners from the port of the Pei-ho 
perish annually in this boisterous gulf. 

Nor is this misfortune viewed with indifference by the natives ; they use increased 
energies in giving strength to their sails of bamboo cloth ; they erect still stronger 
bamboo masts; they arch over their decks and their holds with more impenetrable 
bamboo matting ; and they pay the utmost reverence to the sanctity of the magnetic 
needle. Believing that a divine influence dwells within the compass, they erect 
a small altar behind it, on the deck, and there a spiral taper, composed of wax, tallow, 
and sandal-wood, is kept continually burning. The holy flame is doubly useful; it 
ministers to the pious intentions of the crew, and, by the successive disappearance of 
its twelve equal divisions, marks just so many hours of fleeting time. But it is in vain 
that the childish industry of this ancient people, and still more vain that their idle 
superstitions, are employed to contend with or conquer the merciless whirlwinds that 
agitate the waters of this northern gulf. " Were it possible to blow ten thousand 
trumpets, and beat as many drums, on the forecastle of an Indiaman, in the height of 
a ta-fung, neither the sound of the one nor the other would be heard by a person on 
the quarter-deck of the same vessel." 

Of all the winds that seem to conspire against human labour, and would almost 
despoil nature herself of her fairest products, the typhoon is the most terrific in 
northern latitudes. The Egyptians recognized a wind which they called typhon ; the 
Greeks called a particular species of hurricane, tv^wv, either from the giant of their 
mythology, or from a participle of a verb which signifies " to swell with pride, or power, or 
greatness;" and the Chinese term, ta-fung, is not unanalogous, for it means great zvinci. 
The prognostics of a typhoon are, the swelling of the waters, and their rolling, with 
a majestic volume, in upon the shore. For several hours previous to its incidence, the 
mercury falls slowly in the barometer, and continues to descend during its prevalence, 
but, when the rage of the elements begins to abate, it ascends steadily, and more 
rapidly than it fell. Instinct being often more provident than reason, the sea-birds are 
observed to become unquiet, rising to the skies, and then wheeling and circling and 
screaming with more than wonted wildness ; perhaps they perceive the influence of the 
dusky cloud that generally appears in the horizon, as if driven forward by the advancing 
tempest. The magnitude of the mischief done to shipping may be estimated by 
a comparison with the destruction committed on land, and a recollection of the velocity 
at which the angry elements travel under such circumstances. In northern latitudes, 
or temperate climes, the storm moves at the rate of sixty feet in a second of time; in 
the torrid zones it proceeds often with five times that velocity. Corn, rice, vines, canes, 











are scattered as chaff; houses are unroofed, forests torn up, whole towns inundated, 
ships carried in upon the quays and streets, and there deserted by the waters. Having 
raged for about thirty hours, the typhoon subsides, accompanied in its dying moments 
by repeated peals of the loudest thunder, and innumerable flashes of vivid lightning. 

These dreadful visitations occur more frequently during the changes, than at the 
full of the moon ; and prevail seldom lower than 10° of north latitude. They are felt as 
far east as 130° of longitude, and are most violent during the south-west monsoon, espe- 
cially in the month of July. Though dreadful at all times, and blowing from all points 
of the compass, the terrors of the typhoon are heightened, and its destructive powers con- 
siderably augmented, when it happens to blow in the same direction with the monsoon. 



For ever glideth on that lovely river : 

Laden with early wreaths the creepers twine, 
WTiile like the arrows from a royal quiver, 

Golden the glaring sunbeams o'er them shine. 

L. E. L. 

It is remarkable that people in a primitive state (and notwithstanding their superiority in 
handicraft, the Chinese do not rise much higher in the scale of nations) possess the truest 
and most admirable ideas of the picturesque. Presumption seems to be the charac- 
teristic of modern taste; agreeable and comfortable associations, of that which prevailed 
in the olden time. Our abbeys and convents are placed beside the running stream, 
or on the banks of a navigable river, sheltered from the rude blasts of winter by sur- 
rounding forests or impending hills. In all ancient countries, and where the highest 
degrees of civilization are unknown, domestic architecture is not only suited to the 
natural features of the landscape, but embosomed recesses, deep and densely-wooded 
dingles, valleys fertile and well watered, the romantic banks of some rapid but available 
river, a spot where business and beauty are combined, was uniformly selected as the 
abode, either of the individual or the community. This grateful and fascinating taste 
has withered into contempt before the growth of civilization, whose great glory is to 
level mountains, drain lakes, reclaim the barren wastes, and triumph over nature by 
erecting on those very sites which she had made the most repulsive, the very noblest 
works of art. 

An instinctive love of the picturesque, a prerogative of the mountaineer in all parts 
of the world, is peculiarly the Chinaman's inheritance; and, in the province of Kiang-nan, 
enriched and adorned by a majestic river, they have indulged their taste for landscape 


scenery in a manner and degree calculated to raise our estimation of their intellectual 
qualities. For some miles above and below the Shih-Mun, the river is enclosed between 
banks abrupt, rocky, but interspersed with patches and plateaus of productive land. The 
country behind is of a totally contrary character ; there a wide-spread morass exists, 
difficult of drainage from the rocky ridges that form the river's bed, through which a 
passage for the surplus waters of the fens can scarce be found. Abandoning this moor to 
the wild tenants of the earth and skies, the population have flocked to the water's edge, 
and possessed themselves of the projecting ledges at the mountain's foot, the retiring 
bays at their sheltered base, or the vicinity of some dark pool, whose scaly treasures repay 
the fisherman for his constant toil. As the junks descend the river the velocity of the 
current increases, until its maximum is attained between the herculean pillars of the 
Rock-gates. There the navigation requires much caution, and often the most vigilant, 
confounded by the suddenness with which the two high pinnacles seem to close over 
him, and embrace the azure vault of heaven, mistake their distance, and are carried 
against the rocks. In the surrounding district, limestone prevails very generally, but 
on the river's side it appears to recline on a species of breccia : it would not be untrue 
to characterize the stone in the immediate vicinity of the Shih-Mun as marble, although 
the natives do not place any value on it for decorative purposes, neither do they burn it 
into lime. 

On either side, and just below the rude rocky pillars that contract the passage, small 
coves, of great depth and perfect shelter, afford safe wharfage for merchant-vessels ; 
and there the trading junk is generally seen moored to the natural quay, the steadfast 
cliff; the contracted channel giving a violent and powerful efficacy to the volume of 
waters, which have consequently worked an immense depth here for their transit. In 
this deep basin, multitudes of fish collect, and render their capture, by trained fishing- 
birds, an achievement both easy and profitable. The privilege of fishing between the 
Rock-gates is rented at a very high price from the local government. 

These lofty peaks, that pierce the clouds, derive the epithet " Shih-Mun" from the 
termination of a magnificent scene, so inclined to the direct view of the Rock-gates as to 
be incapable of introduction in the illustration. Its beauties, its solemnities, its horrors, 
have been described in bold and highly coloured language by native poets and tourists ; 
nor has national prejudice, in this instance, outstepped the limits of veracity. Entering 
a deep, dark, close ravine, the opposite sides of which attain at least a thousand feet in 
height, with an intervening space of comparative insignificance, the traveller proceeds 
along his gloomy way, unable to distinguish, save by the occasional sparkhng and 
floating foam, the torrent that tumbles and roars in the abyss below him. Having 
reached the length of a li, or more, he enters "the valley of mist," where he becomes 
enveloped in a thick vapour, filling the entire gulf which the torrent has hollowed out 
from the mountain's bosom by the labour of four thousand years ; and, if he be not 
deterred by the humidity of the strange atmosphere, but persevere to the end, in a 
grand amphitheatre of rocks he will behold the origin of the dewy drapery that hangs 
over and around him — a splendid cataract, some hundred feet in height, falling over the 



very edge of the cliff; the spot he stands on, and the circular hollow all around him, 
being dimly lighted by the rays that pierce through the green waters, at the spot where 
they turn over the ledge of the summit. With this beautiful hue of green, the poetical 
historians of the wonders of the Shih-Mun are familiarly acquainted. They boast of 
having witnessed its lustre in the valley of mist, and compare its verdure to the Lan, 
the plant from which the rich colour employed in dyeing is extracted. They speak of 
the blue mountains, the green cataract, and the hillock of Heen-Yuen, an ancient 
king of Kiang-Nan, and they celebrate the amusements and exploits of his rural life. 
But his majesty must have been formed of unearthly mould, or else "the greatest 
amongst mountain streams" had not descended so far into the bowels of the earth, nor 
yet filled " the ravine of the black stork," with mists impenetrable and for many miles, 
in the age when that old Lear of Cliinese history is said to have held his court only 
four li from the Shih-Mun. 


Hour after hour the growing line extends, 
Nor time nor circumstance controls its ends ; 
Soft cords of silk the whirling spoles reveal. 
If smiling fortune turn the giddy wheel. 

Having destroyed the chrysalides, and wound off the produce in its primitive state,* 
from the cocoons destined for filature, the mere husbandry of silk gathering is concluded. 
And so short is the period, in France only six weeks, consumed in this species of cul- 
ture, that no harvest yields a return of greater celerity and certainty. In a country 
where trade is conducted, not by companies, or associations, or partnerships, but by 
individual exertion, the culture and produce of silk are peculiarly suitable, as affording 
a means of employing small capital with every prospect of early revenue. Females 
devote much of their time and their talents to this occupation ; they are either engaged 
in feeding and rearing the worms, winding off the cocoons, or in general tendence of the 
magnaniere. Sometimes the patriarch of the family purchases cocoons, by which the 
risk of rearing is avoided, and fills up his daughter's leisure time with the process of 
filature. There are, of course, some nurseries or factories, where silk is prepared 
expressly for exportation, but in general the manufacture is for home-consumption. The 
Chinese dislike foreigners, from practice and national institutes, therefore less attentioti 
IS paid to objects of external commerce here than in other countries ; besides, all kinds 
of trade are held in very low estimation in China, as they were of old in Athens and in 

' Vol. i., p. 56. Vol. ii. p. 8, et seq. 

HI. Q 


Time, intercourse, letters, religion, are gradually working such a revolution in the 
social condition of this old empire, that the imperialists are beginning to understand 
the meaning of the term brother, and henceforth the productions which Providence has 
confined to the soil of China, will probably be exchanged, systematically and gene- 
rously, for those of other lands, by which the distribution of happiness over the face of 
the globe must necessarily become less partial than before. 

Around a pool, of a foot or two in depth, sheds or open corridors are arranged, 
appropriated to diflFerent parts of the process of cleaning and preparing the floretta for 
market. Beneath one series are the females en)ployed in the less laborious duty of 
reeling the raw silk that has been brought from the niagnaniere, or purchased for 
filature from the feeders. From the reelers' verandas, the material is consigned to 
those of the washers, and dyers, and bleachers, successively. 

Little celebrated for integrity, the total forgetfulness of that high quality by the 
Chinese is flagrantly conspicuous in their preparation of silk for the loom. Imperfec- 
tions in the texture of this delicate fabric are sometimes of early date, originating in 
the impurity of the water used in the cocoon kettle, or in neglect of the winders to the 
attenuation of the threads during filature. In addition to these causes of inferiority, 
another is induced by the dishonest dye. Having washed out the gum, formed the 
threads into hanks, expressed the moisture, and suspended the silk on bamboo bleaching- 
poles, the operative's work appears to be correctly performed. But raw silk is an insatiable 
absorbent, so that if the dyer be deficient in honest}', he can, by a very slight deviation 
from its path, retain moisture in the hanks, capable of increasing the weight of the 
article by ten per cent. In other countries, purchasers are permitted to test the raw 
material by enclosing a sample in a wire-cloth cage, and exposing it to a stove heated 
to 78° of Farenheit, by which the increase of weight, that is, the amount of the 
fraud, is detected ; but the Chinaman will not permit a barbarian to doubt his honour 
in any respect. 

Europeans, or rather English, distinguish raw silks into three classes, which they 
denominate organzine, tram, and floss. The first, being very tightly twisted, is used 
in the finest and best descriptions of silk-cloths ; tram, which is much less twisted, 
serves for the weft, but is of an inferior quality to organzine ; floss, which is not twisted 
at all, consists of the short, broken, and rejected parts ; this is collected, carded, and 
spun like cotton. These three species, formed from the fleuret by twisting or throwing, 
are now called hand silk ; they must all be submitted to the process of boiling, in order 
to discharge the gum from them, otherwise they would be harsh to the touch, and unfit 
to receive the dye. The original native colour of the yarn varies but lit lie in different 
countries. In Anglo-India we find silk yellow, french-white, and fawn colour; in China 
it is generally yellow, and in Sicily and Persia the same colour prevails; while the only 
naturally white produce we yet know of, comes from Palestine. The silk-growers of 
Kazem-bazar whiten their yarns with a ley made from the ashes of "the arbor-fici- 
Adami : but the species being rare, the larger portion of their exports retains its native 
bright and beautiful yellow. 








Then, wake, that you may live. 

Here, take the best prescription I can give ; 

Your bloodless veins, your appetite shall fail, 

Unless you raise them by a powerful meal, — 

Come, take this rice. Horace. 

It is to the productiveness of the oryza saliva, a simple grass, on which nature has 
conferred the peculiar property of growing in marshy or inundated grounds, that the 
vast regions of the East owe the density of their population, and their early submission 
to social obligations. Immense districts in China and Hindoo would, unquestionably, 
have still lain desolate and untenanted, were it not for the ability to alter and to cultivate 
the surface of the globe, which a knowledge of the rice-plant conveys. To what simple 
causes, therefore, does deliberate analysis sometimes lead, in our efforts to trace the 
most remarkable effects to their proper sources ; for, the destiny of nations, from 
the earliest periods, seems to have been materially influenced by the discovery and 
cultivation of this " staff of life." Previous to its introduction into Egypt and Greece, it 
had been long known in more eastern lands, for Plin}', Dioscorides, and Theophrastus 
all speak of its importation from India: hut, in their age, it was little cultivated on the 
shores of the Mediterranean. Within the last three centuries, however, its popularity has 
become universal, restricted only by the limits of climate, for it now occupies the same 
place in intertropical countries as wheat in the warmer parts of Europe, and oats and 
rye in those that are more northern. In the United States of North America, Carolina 
especially, the cultivation of rice forms a principal occupation of the rural population, and 
chief export of the maritime ; there, the date of its introduction, 1697, is tenaciously 
remembered, the benefits of its naturalization being of such importance to the national 
wealth and happiness. 

From the facility with which it can be cultivated, yielding two crops annually, and 
the watery soil to which it is partial, the presumption is, that rice was specially provided 
by the all-wise Creator, as the chief food of most sultry kingdoms. Besides the Chinese 
and Hindoos, the Malays and neighbouring islanders have paid the utmost attention to 
this species of cultivation; and Japanese, Cingalese, and Batavians experience the 
benefits of a crop, which is not only semi-annual, but yields six times as much as an 
equal space of wheat lands. A fondness for this wholesome food pervades the German 
states, where, in the southern latitudes, from. long culture, it has acquired a remarkable 

• It is citlled iji Arabic, aruz ; Hindoostan, chawl : Latin, oryza ; Italian, riso ; French, riz. 


(legreeof hardiness, and adaptation to the particular temperature — a circumstance adduced 
as an argument in favour of cultivating exotics ; but seeds imported directly from 
India will not ripen at all in Germany, and even Italian or Spanish seeds are much less 
early and hardy than those ripened on the spot. One experiment was made in England 
to raise this Indian beverage, and a healthy crop of rice vvas successfully reaped on the 
banks of the smooth-flowing Thames. 

In Oriental countries, rice is extolled as superior to all other species of food, and in 
China it is an article of the first necessity. So completely is its presence deemed 
requisite at all meals, that the term fan, boiled rice, enters into every compound that 
implies the ceremony of eating; tche-fan, to eat rice, signifies a meal generally; tsao- 
fan, morning rice, means breakfast; and by ouan-fan, evening rice, supper is implied. 
It is undoubtedly a light and wholesome diet, although it is supposed to include less 
of the nutritive principle than wheat.* From the small proportion of gluten which it 
contains, it is not capable of being made into proper bread, but is highly valued for 
puddings, and many culinary preparations. Its excellent qualities, rapidity of pro- 
duction, and consequent cheapness, confer upon it claims to attention as a general article 
of sustenance for the poorer classes of society ; and, it is ascertained, that a quarter of 
a pound of rice, slowly boiled, will yield upwards of a pound of solid and nutritive food. 

Besides its offices in the support of life, there are others which rice discharges, 
useful, profitable, and agreeable. Its flower being reduced into a pulp with hot water, 
is moulded into figures, and images, and plates, which the Chinese harden, and orna- 
ment with scroll-work, resembling mother-of-pearl toys. In our cotton factories, it is 
used in making weavers' dressings for warps ; and at Goa, on the Malabar coast, as 
well as in the island of Batavia, the ardent spirit called rack, or arrack, is obtained 
from a decoction of rice, fermented and distilled, and mixed with the juice of the cocoa- 
nut tree. Civilization is not, in this instance, solely chargeable with the guilt of fur- 
nishing intoxicating liquors to the Indians, for, before the Portuguese, or the Dutch, or 
the British, had any settlements in the far east, the demoralizing beverage of seaou-tchoo, 
a distillation from rice, was sold in every little public-house in China. 

Inebriety was not the only deplorable consequence supposed to attend exclusive 
oryzous diet; in some provinces, the prevalence of ophthalmia was foolishly attributed 
to its copious use. That this charge is groundless seems highly probable, from the 
fact, that the millions who dwell in the great Hindoo continent, and live solely upon 
rice, are not subject to any such disease. Besides, in Egypt, where the ophthalmia was 
much more prevalent in ancient times, than it was ever said to have been in China, 
this grain was neither known nor cultivated until the reign of the Caliphs, when it was 
brought thither from the East. If this disease predominate in China, which is ques- 
tioned, it is probably owing to the crowded state of their low dwellings, always filled 
with smoke from the sandal-wood tapers that mark the hours of fleeting time, to the 
constant and general use of tobacco, to the miasma exhaling from the offal uniformly 

• Carolina rice contains — of starch, 85,07 ; of gluten, 3 60 ; of gum, 0.71 ; of uncrystallizable sugar, 0,29 ; 
of colourless fat, 0.13 ; of vegetable fibre, 4.8 ; of salts with lime bases, 0.4 ; and of water, 5.0. 


collected near each entrance, and, lastly, from the very frequent practice of bathing the 
face with warm water. 

The benefits and the blessings of such a staff of hfe as this readily-raised crop, suffer 
no shght detraction, from its precarious character ; for, any failure, however slight, is 
attended with the most deplorable consequences. Where population is so amazingly 
crowded, subdivision of land practised to so inconsiderate an extent, and riches rarely 
ever laid by for the day of inability or misfortune, a check to the annual produce must 
necessarily prove fatal to numbers of the poorest classes. Too frequently, therefore, 
famine visits and wastes the land, for the rice-crop is subject to many casualties. 
A drought, in its early stages, withers the young shoots in the ground ; and, an inunda- 
tion, in a more advanced state, proves equally destructive ; add to which, that birds 
and locusts continue to wage everlasting war upon fields of rice, in preference to any 
other of the cultivated labours of man, and these enemies are particularly numerous in 
China. Wheat and millet being raised in the northern provinces, the chances of being 
visited by famine are consequently reduced in proportion to the increased variety of 
grains, and Europeans have urged upon the attention of the Chinese agriculturist, with 
all the candour and humanity that belong to this quarter of the globe, the advantage of 
introducing the potato, as an auxiliary to rice and wheat, in averting those periodic 
visitations of scarcity. To obviate the fatal effects of such calamitous failures in the rice- 
crop, the emperor causes a large supply to be constantly laid up in the public granaries, 
for distribution at moderate prices when the day of dearth arrives. This system is of 
ancient usage, and belongs naturally to all patriarchal, imperial, or feudal governments, 
in which the lord is bound to look parentally to the wants of his retainers ; but the Chinese 
family has grown too large for its beneficial operation, and the minor mandarins, by their 
extortions and inhumanity, are known to intercept the rays of imperial favour, and 
suffer the poorest classes to wither away in the chilling shade of famine and destitution. 

Although there are very many qualities of rice, there appears to be but one species. 
Climate and cultivation produce such obvious changes in its value, that different quali- 
ties resemble different kinds. Mountain-grain, cultivated in Cochin-China, and amongst 
the Himalayan chain, is by some called dry-rice, but even this quality is not raised 
without the aid of heavy periodic rains, so that every quality is properly an aquatic crop. 
The vast length of time it has been known in China, and the absolute necessity for 
its cultivation, have enabled these simple but laborious agriculturists to understand its 
constitution, and taught them the best mode of improving it. Chinese irrigation is pro- 
verbially ingenious, and Chinese husbandry peculiarly interesting. 

The singular construction of the rice-plough, the natural history and docility of the 
water-ox, and the mechanism of the water-wheel, or the float-boards that traverse in a 
trough, and sweep the influx with them, have been alluded to in former descriptions of 
Chinese food and husbandry, and are again noticed in those that follow.* 

* Vide vol. i. p. 56, and " Transplanting Rice," p. 30, seq. 




So when a peasant to his garden brings 
Soft rills of water from the bubbling springs, 
Swift as the rolling pebbles down the hills, 
Louder and louder purl the falling rills ; 
Before him scattering they prevent his pains. 
And shine in mazy wanderings o'er the plains. 


RiCE-grounds consist of neatly enclosed spaces, the clay banks surrounding them seldom 
exceeding two feet in height. The primary operation of tillage-ploughing is performed 
with a very primitive implement, that consists of a beam, handle, and coulter, but no 
mould-board, as laying over " the sidelong glebe " is beyond the rural knowledge of a 
Chinaman. The buffalo, or water-ox, is then called in, to draw the three-barred harrow 
with wooden teeth over the surface, after which the earth is deemed sufficiently pulverized 
to receive the seed. Having been steeped in a liquid preparation to accelerate germina- 
tion, and avert the attacks of insects, the seed is sown, very thickly, and, almost 
immediately after, a thin sheet of water is induced over the enclosure. After the 
interval of a few days only, the shoots overtop the water, and this precocity is the signal 
for transplanting, which consists in plucking up the plants by the roots, cutting off the 
tops of the blades, and setting each root separately. The last process is aided either 
by turning furrows with the plough, or opening holes with the dibble. With such 
rapidity is transplanting performed by the experienced, that with ordinary exertion five- 
and-twenty plants may be carefully set in a minute. The harrow having pulverized 
in the first instance, and subsequently diffused the seeds more equally, the hoe is fre- 
quently employed to clear between the plants. 

Each rice-field being partitioned into many minor enclosures, it is not attended with 
inconvenience to conduct a rivulet into any particular plantation, through an opening 
in the clay ridge that surrounds it. Sometimes a natural brook contributes a sufficient 
supply, but more frequently the labour of the peasant provides it. Chain-pumps, with 
their lines of buckets, are in common use ; a series of flat boards, exactly fitted to the 
channel through which it is to be forced, confines the water between each pair, forming 
extemporary buckets. These are worked by a foot-mill of proportionate dimensions ;* 
but labour still more intense is dedicated to this necessary operation, irrigating rice- 
grounds. In one of the most operose plans, two men stand opposite to each other on 
projecting banks of a stream, holding ropes securely attached to a bucket, which is 
filled by relaxing, and raised by tightening the cords, then by a skilful jerk they empty 
the contents into a reservoir, or throw it in the direction of the conduit cut for the irriga- 
• Vide illustration, " Sowing Rice at Soo-chow-foo," p. 27, preceding. 



tion of some one field. Another contrivance for the same purpose consists of a long pole, 
unequally divided in its length, and made to turn on a pivot across an upright post. 
A bucket attached to the shorter arm of this lever is easily lowered into the water, 
and, when filled, by the application of a small power at the extremity of the longer 
arm, it is soon raised, and discharged into the reservoir. How exactly is the Chinese 
process of irrigation described in the book of Numbers — " He shall pour the water out 
of his buckets, and his seed will be in many waters." The bamboo water-wheel, with 
hollow fellies, or with buckets, and employed when the quantity of water required, and 
the height to which it is to be raised, are both considerable, is of ancient existence 
amongst the Chinese ; from them the Egyptians, Syrians, and Persians adopted this 
useful invention, and European machinists have ignorantly ascribed the honour of the 
discovery to the very nation that became last acquainted with its value, obstinately 
designating it the Persian wheel. 

Irrigation having performed its anticipated work, the rice begins to grow Avith 
rapidity ; the culm ranges from one to six feet ; it is annual, erect, simple, round, and 
jointed : the leaves are large, firm, and pointed, arising from very long, cylindrical, and 
finely striated sheaths ; the flowers* are disposed in a large and beautiful pannicle, 
resembling that of the oat. The seeds are white and oblong, differing in size and form 
in the numerous varieties. As the crop approaches to maturity, the sluices are closed, 
the waters withheld, and soon the yellow tinge of the ripening grain invites the reapers 
toil With a sickle similar to our common serrated reaping-hook, the crop is soon 
prostrated, on a surface, now rendered perfectly dry by evaporation and absorption ; 
after which the bundles are removed, in frames suspended at the extremities of 
a bamboo pole, the national mode of portage, to the threshing apparatus, of whatever 
kind it may be. The edge of a plank, the margin of a large tub, with a screen drawn 
up behind them, are the most popular threshing machines employed in the empire; but 
flails, after which our own are formed, are used on the larger farms, or where there is 
a considerable quantity to be disengaged from its husks. It is remarkable how much 
the scholar excels the master in the management of this primitive implement of hus- 
bandry : in China, the labourer winds the swingel round, as we do a whip; in the British 
Isles, it is made to revolve rapidly round the head, by which means it acquires an 
accelerated velocity, and therefore an increased momentum. 

Rice, in its natural state, either growing or unthreshed, is called paddy in all 
Eastern countries, and the process of cleaning it, or disengaging it perfectly from its 
husks, appears to have occasioned considerable difficulty to the Chinese, and not to 
have been quite free from obstructions amongst the more civilized cultivators of this 
important grain. Amongst both Egyptians and Chinese the machine usually employed 
for the purpose is a species of stamping or crushing mill, worked in the former country 
by oxen, in the latter by water-power. It consists of an horizontal axis, with projecting 
cogs, of wood or iron, fixed at certain intervals. At right angles to the axis are fixed so 
many horizontal levers as there are circular rows of cogs, acting on pivots fastened in 

* The calyx is a bivalvular uniflorous glume ; the corolla bivalvular, nearly equal, and adhering to the seed. 


a low wall, parallel to the axis, and at the distance of about two feet from it. At the 
further extremity of each lever, and perpendicular to it, is fixed a hollow pestle, directly 
over a large stone or iron mortar, sunk in the ground ; the other extremity, extending 
beyond the wall, being depressed by the cogs of the axis in its revolution, elevates the 
pestle, which falls again by its own gravity into the mortar. This process is only applied 
when the quantity to be cleaned is considerable ; on small farms, and amongst the poor, 
a machine, consisting of a single lever, and pestle and mortar, worked by a foot-board, 
serves the purpose sufficiently well. In the year 1826, a patent was secured by Mr. 
Melvil Wilson, for a rice-cleaning machine ; his plan will be at once understood by 
merely placing the axis of the Chinese mill in a position inclined to the horizon, and 
giving all other parts in detail the advantage of European excellence in mechanical 

In May or June the first crop is generally cut, and before the harvesting is wholly 
completed, preparations are begun for a new or second sowing, by pulling up the stubble, 
collecting it into small heaps, the ashes of which, after burning, are scattered over the 
surface. The second crop attaining maturity in October or November, is submitted 
to the operations of reaping, and carrying, and threshing, applied to its predecessor. 
But the second stubble, instead of being burned, is turned under by the plough, left 
to decompose in the earth, and become manure for the spring-crop of the following 
year. Although no Chinese rice finds its way to England, the produce of Anglo-India 
is imported by our merchants in large quantities. For many years, cleaned rice from 
Carolina excluded most other varieties ; but, as American labour was expended on its 
cleaning, and as it is the interest of England to import raw materials, and fashion them 
for the markets of the world by the labour of her numerous mechanics, so we now 
prefer to import Bengalese rice in the husks, and prepare it for immediate use by 
machinery of home-manufacture. 


With dice, with cards, with hazards far unfit, 
With shuttlecocks mis-seeming manly wit. 

Hubbard's Tale. 

Near to the afilux of the Tchang-ho with the Cha-ho, river of flood-gates, or imperial 
canal, is a splendid octagonal pagoda : it consists of nine stories, adorned with project- 
ing eves, and it tapers with a remarkably gradual and graceful convergence. From 
its basement to the edge of the waters, the grounds slope gently, and this pleasant area 
being reserved for the recreation of the citizens of Lin-tsing-choo, generally presents 
a scene of mirth, although not always of moraUty. Here jugglers display their unri- 









vailed dexterity in the arts of deception ; tumblers, vaulters, and merry-andrews, 
exhibit feats in which the strength and ductility of the human body are conspicuously 
shown, and old pulcinello, the long-admired of civilized Europeans, asserts his claims 
to a pre-eminence. All this would be well and unobjectionable if the kingdom of mirth 
were not extended further, nor its powers of pleasing distorted by dishonest and vicious 
votaries of chance. Building, with a certainty but too secure, upon the evil propen- 
sities of our nature, quail and cricket fighters, mora players, and gamblers of every 
description known in this wide empire, here congregate, to exercise their demoralizing 
callings, and accelerate the ruin of thousands who become the easy dupes of their 

Around the groups engaged with absorbing earnestness in games of chance, the 
more cautious, but not less interested, are seated, relieving their anxiety upon the 
pending bet, by the pleasures of the chibouque. There are, however, other, and these 
rather numerous assemblages, more innocently occupied with either feats of activity or 
childish sports, which, though probably little suited to their multiplied years, are exer- 
cises of virtue in comparison with the grave occupations in which their fellows are engaged 
on the greensward all around them. Kite-flying constitutes a favourite amusement, 
and few nations have ever succeeded, possibly none have ever aspired, to elevate these 
simple structures to such an height as the Chinese. Their delicate, light, yet durable 
paper, their pliant and fissile bamboo, invite experimentalists in this kind of aeros- 
tation, from the peculiar applicability of the material to the manufacture. In this 
sport there is much emulation, and not boys onh', but adults, put forth their best 
energies in flying kites to the greatest height, and in endeavouring to bring down their 
antagonist's by dividing the strings. 

Puerile taste is not confined, however, to this innocent amusement ; the sport of 
shuttlecock, certainly a healthy recreation, is pursued with a degree of enthusiasm 
which it is seldom known to excite in the western world. There it is strictly limited 
to the youth of both sexes, and in some resigned to the gentler exclusively ; but, in 
China, the most muscular men amongst the labouring classes seem to feel inexpressible 
delight in the sensation it produces. No battle-doors are employed, nor are the hands 
generally of any service in the game, save to balance the player's body during its rapid 
movements : the shuttlecock is struck with the soles of the feet, sometimes unprotected 
by any covering ; at others, however, wooden shoes are permitted, and the noise which 
these cumbrous accompaniments contribute, is considered an accession to the mirth. 
Five, frequently six persons, form themselves into a circle, for the purpose of playing 
at this active game ; and whether shoes be permitted, or hands occasionally allowed, to 
aid the feet in preventing the shuttlecock from coming to the ground, the least successful 
players fall out of the ring in turn, until the number is gradually reduced to one ; this 
one is, of course, declared to be the winner of the stakes, or the pool, or the object 
played for, whatever it may happen to have been. 




" But ere the mingling bounds have far been passed, 
Turbid Hoang-ho rolls his power along 
In sullen billows, murmuring and vast, 
So noted ancient roundelays among." 


The Chinese carry the process of irrigation, and the benefits of water-carriage, to a 
greater extent than any other nation, and they seem to have received encouragement 
in both objects from the natural facilities that present themselves in every part of the 
empire. A level surface permits the easy execution of the one, — vast mountain-chains, 
either within the imperial confines, or in the adjoining countries, supply endless resources 
in effecting the other. Two great rivers have long been known to Europeans as the 
feeders of Chinese canals, and as the principal sources whence fertility is diffused over 
the surface of that ancient empire — the Yang-tse-kiang, sometimes incorrectly called 
the Blue river ; and the Hoang-ho, or Yellow river. The first of these noble streams 
has frequently been spoken of in the preceding pages ; the embouchure of the second 
constitutes the chief subject of the accompanying illustration. 

Issuing from two spacious lakes, Tcharing and Oring, at Sing-suh-hae, in the lofty 
mountains of Thibet, and in the region of Kokonor, the waters of Hoang-ho descend 
from their fountain, at first, through a length of two hundred and fifty miles, with the 
most uncontrollable impetuosity ; then turning from an eastern to a north-western 
direction, they find a more level course for about an equal distance, after which they 
enter the Chinese province of Shan-tse, and the stream, remaining parallel in its course 
for some hundred miles with the Great Wall, at length intersects that celebrated work 
in the twenty-ninth degree of latitude, and takes a northern direction for upwards oi 
four hundred additional miles. Hence '■'■ vires acquirit eundo" briefly describes its cha- 
racter, many rivers and lakes contributing the overflow of their waters to swell those 
of the great recipient; and again directing its power eastward, it recrosses the Great Wall, 
traverses the northern provinces for hundreds of miles further, and enters Honan in the 
same parallel of latitude in which it has its source. In Kiang-nan it is augmented by 
a vast contribution from Lake Hong-tse, after which the majestic volume moves more 
slowly towards that part of the eastern ocean to which it imparts both its turbid cha- 
racter and expressive name. 

It is its intersection with the imperial canal — the junction of Lake Hong-tse, the 
afflux of the Salt river — that is considered to be the mouth of the Hoang-ho ; and here 
it is that commerce has formed a rendezvous for shipping, and here also superstition 
has erected an altar to her worship. Descending with rapidity through a constant slope, 
of two thousand five hundred miles, the stream of the Hoang-ho acquires a momentum that 
renders the crossing from shore to shore always a perilous undertaking. At the efflux of 











Lake Hong-tse, and at the precise spot where the canal locks into the river, the velocity 
of the current is seldom less than four miles an hour, although that locality is not more 
than twenty miles distant from the sea. It has been calculated from obvious data — the 
breadth, mean depth, and velocity — that this famous river discharges into the Yellow sea 
in every hour of fleeting time, '2,563,000,000 gallons of water, which is more than one 
thousand times as much as the Ganges yields. Nor is this immense volume its sole 
distinguishing feature, it has a second still move extraordinary, — the quantity of mud 
which it constantly holds in suspension, and which it carries with it into the sea in 
such proportion as to disfigure its brightness, and give it amongst geographers a charac- 
teristic name. From an experiment cautiously performed, two gallons of water taken 
from the middle of the river deposited a quantity of yellowish mud, which, when com- 
pact and formed into a brick, was equal to three solid inches. Hence it follows, that 
the quantity of water which is supposed to escape hourly into the Yellow sea, conveys 
simultaneously two millions solid feet of earth.* 

This turbid property excites no attention, is directed to no particular or special 
purpose, is attended with no unusual respect, from these worshippers of natural effects : 
but, the dangerous velocity of the stream of the Hoang-ho has, from immemorial time, 
obtained the most reverential acknowledgments. Before the barge shall launch upon 
its surface, victims for sacrifice are provided, and brought on board. These consist gene- 
rally of fowls,f or pigs, or both, according to the means of the navigators. The blood, 
with the feathers and hair, is then daubed on different parts of the junk, after which 
cups of wine, oil, tea, rice, flour, and salt, are ranged in order on the forecastle. The 
last of these articles of existence has long enjoyed the respect of nations. The Hebrew 
law directed, " Every oblation of thy meat offering shalt thou season with salt : neither 
shalt thou sufler the salt of the covenant of thy God to be lacking from thy meat 
offering." Ovid speaks of the " piiri Iticida mica sails" amongst the oblations of the 
primitive Italians; and Horace, of the " .sdliente mica" amongst the peace offerings to 
the offended penates. But, in Oriental countries, especially under tropical climes, where 
salt is not only scarce, but the chief antiseptic for meat, it is not singular that it should 
be so much valued, and employed consequently in offerings, either of supplication for 
mercy, or atonement for crime. Amongst the ancient Romans, salt was estimated at 
such a value, that he who had obtained a pension from the state, was said to have 
received his salariuiii, the price of his salt, whence the English word salary ; and the 
phrase of having " eaten the salt of such an one " is still familiar amongst the Hindoos, 
who claim it as a bond of friendship, or at least a ground of obligation.^ 

* When a Chinaman wishes to deny the possibility of an event, he sometimes expresses his incredulity by 
the well-known proverb, " that it will come to pass so soon as the Yelluw river becomes clear." 

t So, also, the Levitical law prescribes, that " the priest shall bring it (the fotvl) unto the altar, and wiiug 
off its head, and burn it on the altar; and the blood thereof shall be wrung out at the side of the altar, and 
he shall pluck away his crop with the feathers, and cast it beside the altar." 

\ When the Duke of Wellington, (Sir Arthur Wellesley,) was stationed at Hastings, immediately after his 
return from India, a friend expressed his surprise that the general, who bad led so many thousands to victory, 


The slaughtered animals, the vessels of offerings, and dishes of cooked provisions, 
being duly spread out on the deck, the captain takes his place before them, and remains 
in a standing position, until the junk reaches the most rapid part of the current, an 
attendant all the while beating on a gong with untiring industry. This critical part of 
the voyage being happily accomplished, the captain proceeds, with the utmost gravity, 
to pour the contents of the cups severally over the bow of his vessel into the stream, 
sending the offal after the libation, but retaining for his own use the dishes made from 
the most delicate parts of each victim. The removal of the dishes to the cabin is attended 
with a still more violent beating of the gong, a rapid discharge of squibs, crackers, and 
other species of fireworks, during which the crew are busily engaged in performing 
three genuflexions, and as many prostrations. In this way the Yellow river is passed 
by the junks that navigate the imperial canal; and, although an English sailor would 
feel little apprehension in making this voyage of not more than a mile, where reason- 
able diligence can scarcely fail in accomplishing the object, very many fatal accidents 
occur to the Chinese. Against their recurrence, however, no means have yet been 
devised, or introduced, by the followers of Fo, beyond these customary attempts to pro- 
pitiate the evil spirit by offerings, which are believed to have been accepted whenever 
the navigator reaches the destined bank in safety. 


" The harvest-treasures all 
Now gathered in, beyond the reach of storms, 
Secure the swain ; the circling fence shut up ; 
And insolent winter's utmost rage defied." 


Every pretext that can be advanced to palliate idolatry, is in the possession of a China- 
man. He propitiates evil spirits by land and sea — he deifies innumerable natural 
objects, and constructs divinities for his adoration by the assistance of art Sacrifices and 
oblations continue to be offered, as if the one great atonement had neither occurred, nor 
been promulgated ; and the earliest practices of ignorance are observed with a tenacity 
worthy of the world some two thousand years ago. 

Such sacrifices are divided into three classes — great (ta,) medium (choong,) and lesser 
(seaou.) Amongst the second kind are those made upon the gathering in of harvest, 

could so soon become reconciled to the command of a brigade. " I am mimmukwallak," replied Sir Arthur, 
" as we say in the East ; that is, I have eat the king's salt, and therefore I conceive it to be my duty to serve, 
with unhesitating zeal and cheerfulness, when and wherever the king and his government may think proper to 
employ me." — Wright's Life and Campaigns of Wellington, vol. i. p. 97. 





J ^ 


' 3- 


which are accompanied by the genial quality of gratitude — a gratitude, however, which 
the display of an all-powerful Providence, in the production of an abundant harvest, 
can scarcely fail to obtain from man in every state of his existence, from his entire con- 
viction of the vanity of all human efforts, unaided by the benevolence of his Creator. 

When the day of the full harvest-moon arrives, Chinamen, wherever they may be, 
or however engaged, with a sort of Mussulman scrupulosity, make their oblations 
to the gods of grain and of land. In every city, usually where the highways meet, 
this offering to the Chinese Ceres is made. Generally a rude stone is set up for 
a harvest-god, before which incense is burned ; and logs of wood, hewn into imperfect 
resemblances of the " human form divine," are placed around, to represent rustic deities, 
local genii, tutelar gods of agriculture, horticulture, and rural occupations ; these 
unsightly effigies being, in some instances, most audaciously imposed upon spectators as 
appropriate representations of the sun, moon, clouds, winds, rain, and thunder. 

Even those who happen to be at sea, or navigating the great rivers of the empire, when 
the day of the full harvest-moon arrives, are under an obligation to sacrifice to the gods 
or goddesses of plenty, whom they especially adore. For this purpose the favourite 
images are brought upon deck, and suspended over three cups of tea and two bundles 
of sandal-wood, the captain and his crew kneeling before them, and performing the ko- 
tow repeatedly. The ceremony having proceeded so far, the captain arises, takes up 
a lighted torch, and, walking three times around the bow of his vessel, exorcises all evil 
spirits in the name of his guardian idol. The contents of the cups are now given as 
a libation to the marine deities, the wooden gods are laid on a funeral pile made of 
paper, and totally consumed, after which the pageant is closed with a discharge of fire- 
works and a violent thumping of gongs. 

Amongst the Greeks there were Thesmophoria ; amongst the Romans, Cerealia; 
sacrifices, or rather festivals, in honour of the deities that presided over agriculture. 
The Chinese observe mysteries having a general resemblance to those of the ancient 
kingdoms of Europe, and in motive and principle precisely identical. When the harvest 
is completely ended, or rather when the harvest-moon is at the full, forgetting 

" That, with to-morrow's sun, their annual toil, 
Begins again the never-ceasing round" — 

the Chinaman holds his agricultural festival, unimpeded in his religious duties by the 
claims of those that are temporal; the labours of the barn, performed by the swingel — the 
operation of winnowing, in which a bamboo sieve and spacious cotton sheet are the only 
implements — and the preparation of the fields for another crop of rice, all "go bravely 
on," while the family, in the attitude of prayer and thankfulness, are engaged before the 
altar of their rural gods. In the vicinity of the farm-buildings, but always in an open posi- 
tion, a portico is constructed, in a style of peculiar neatness, for the reception of the image 
selected by the patriarch of the family. A table in front of the niche in which the rude 
figure is set up, serves as an altar on which flowers, and pastiles, and tapers, are ranged, 
with cups of rice or tea. Here, before this most contemptible mockery of intelligence 
and power, the mother of the family presents herself, holding in her apron such produce 



and grain as she deems most suitable for a first-fruits offering. Behind and beside her, 
on a mat spread out before the rustic temple, her husband and children attend, and 
second her intreaties that the offering may be accepted, by prostrations, genuflexions, 
and silent prayers. This surely is a scene of gratitude and affection : it implies the 
presence of the finest feelings, it is exemplary in its observance, and the actors betray 
the influence of no motive that is susceptible of an anti-moral tendency. Is it not there- 
fore encouraging to those whose Christian duties demand the diligent exercise of their 
abilities in expelling the long night of idolatry from China, by directing the rays of 
Christianity to shine upon the land, to perceive, that there, too, are hearts that can be 
moved by a sense of obligation — souls capable of appreciating the benefits conferred 
upon them by an unknown God — minds prepared by custom, habit, practice of long 
continuance, to receive a just account of the relation that exists between the Creator 
and the creature, and to acknowledge the eternal obligation under which the merits of 
a Redeemer have placed the whole human race, from the beginning of the world till 
time shall be no more. 

The accompanying view, which represents a rice-farm a few li from Yang-tcheou, 
is remarkably characteristic, conveying a most full and perfect representation of the 
national habits and local scenery. A town of the third class, with its pagoda tower- 
ing over it, fills the remote distance ; the rice-grounds, in preparation for a second crop, 
occupy the middle; while the harvest sacrifice, and reduction of the crop just saved to 
a marketable state, take up the whole foreground of this epitome of utilitarianism. 

In this little scene, that cannot be viewed without an affecting interest — without 
increasing, or rather creating, a respect for the character of the rural population of this 
vast empire, the appropriations of the national tree, the bamboo, are more than ordi- 
narily conspicuous. The shed, and gates, and fence of the threshing-stall are of split 
stems; the sieve used by the winnower, the large mat on which the family are kneeling 
before the altar, the hat worn by the patriarch, the table under the portico, and the 
entire of the temple itself, are composed of the stems, or the canes, or the fibres of 
this invaluable vegetable production. 












" They bring the varied stores from east and west, 
Rich cloth of gold, and floating gossamer ; 
From southern climes the loose embroidered vest, 
And from the colder north, its downy fur." 

The City of Damascus. 

Peking, or the Northern Court,* the capital of the Chinese empire, is situated in a fer- 
tile plain, about fifty miles from the Great Wall, in the province of Pe-tcheli, and on the 
Yu-ho, a tributary to the Pei-ho about fifteen miles eastward of the city. Its form is 
that of a rectangle or right-angled parallelogram, having an area of about fourteen square 
miles, exclusive of extensive suburbs, divided into two totally distinct and separate 
sections. Of these, the northern, Kiug-tchhing, which is a perfect square, was founded 
by the Mantchoos, is inhabited by Tartars exclusively, and includes the imperial palace : 
while the southern, Lao-tc/thi7ig, or fFdi-lo-tchlnng, in the form of a parallelogram, is 
occupied solely by Chinese. Each city is enclosed by its respective walls, the enceinte 
of one series covering nine square miles ; of the other, the imperial, or Tartar, occu- 
pying five. The mural defences, like those of other cities of the first class, consist of 
walls about thirty feet in height and twenty in thickness, constructed in the manner 
common, in the early ages of architecture, to all countries. Two retaining walls, the 
bases of stone, the upper parts of brick, having a considerable slope on the exterior, 
but perpendicular within, were first raised, and the interval afterwards filled up with 
earth. The summit between the parapets is levelled, floored with tiles, and access to it 
afforded by inclined planes enclosed within the thickness of the walls. This is the 
plan according to which the great nationafc-.rampart is erected ; this is also the mode in 
which our feudal castles of old were built, except that rubble-stone, instead of earth, 
was thrown between the retaining walls, and mortar poured in amongst them to form 
a lasting concrete. The south wall is pierced by three gates of entrance, the others, by 
two each ; whence the origin of the second appellation, " the City of Nine Gates;'' 
a name for which history supplies parallels in Heptapolis and Hecatompolis, ; and the 
central entrance on the south side opens into the imperial or Tartar city. A moat, filled 
with water, encircled the whole city at an early period, but the increase of the suburbs 
rendering this defence simply a separation between the inhabitants, the authorities 
permitted its waters to evaporate. The walls, on which twelve horsemen may ride 
abreast, are finished with parapets, deeply crenated, but without regular embrasures, 
which do not indeed appear to have been required, since the Tartar's rights rest on 
his bow. 

• So called to distinguish it from Nanking, the Southern Court; it is also designated " the City of the 
Nine Gates." 


For more complete security and defence, the walls are doubled at each principal 
gate, or, more correctly speaking, in front of each entrance is an esplanade enclosed by 
a semicircular curtain, and used as a " place of arms." The entrance to the esplanade 
is not immediately in front of the inner gate, but lateral, a plan adopted in European 
fortresses ; and the battlements above are unprotected by any implements of war. 
Above and behind these great bastions rise pavilion-roofed watch-towers, of nine stories 
each, and pierced with port-holes ; these, however, are not available in cases of sudden 
emergency, for the forms which they present are unreal, the cannon shown in each 
aperture being only painted, sham, or quaker guns, such as frequently ornament the sides 
of vessels in our merchant-service. Besides these vain port-holes of the many-storied 
towers, their walls are pierced by numerous loop-holes for the discharge of arrows, and 
a similar policy is adopted on the mural ramparts, where the embrasures are unoccupied 
by cannon, but ojienings for archery are formed in the merlons. At equal intervals, 
some sixty yards, the distance at which a Tartar's bow proves fatal, stand flanking- 
towers, projecting from the curtain-wall about forty feet. These are similar in design, 
and equal in height, to the great structures that command the gates. 

Notwithstanding the vast area enclosed by its walls, Peking does not probably con- 
tain a population equal to that of London : it certainly does not exceed two millions. 
A large portion of the enceinte is devoted to the accommodation of the imperial house- 
hold ; public buildings, of mean elevation but spacious ground-plan, cover a large addi- 
tional space, while numerous public vegetable-gardens, and large sheets of water, still 
farther detract from the site on which the city is said to stand. Two principal streets, 
a hundred feet in width, and four miles in length, connect the northern and southern 
gates, and two of corresponding breadth extend from east to west. With the exception 
of these noble avenues, the streets of Peking, like those of all other Chinese cities, and 
like those also of the old cities of the European continent, are dark, dismal, narrow 
passages, where light and health are equally forbidden to enter. If any accession to the 
lonely character of these alleys were required, the style of national domestic architec- 
ture would very amply aiford it. With apparent inhospitality, the gentry, who 
dwell generally in the cross or private streets, turn the backs of their palaces to the 
highway ; a long blank wall, with a gate of entrance, never left open for a moment, 
forming the continuous line of building on either side. Sufficient commotion, and bustle, 
and business, however, eternally present themselves in the four grand avenues of the 
metropolis. At their intersection stand a number of Pai-loo, or triumphal records, 
raised to remind the public of some great legislator, or hero, or benefactor, whose 
memory is deserving of lasting respect. 

Each of the high streets is lined on either side with shops and warehouses, places of 
entertainment, specimens of the particular merchandise sold in each establishment being 
exhibited in front of the houses. Above the low projecting eaves, are seen banners waving 
from a staff, or boards secured to a tall pillar, inscribed, in letters of gold on grounds of 
green or vermilion, with the name of the ware, and the established reputation of the 

• As in Beaumaris Castle, North Wales. 


vender. To enhance this record, and attract attention, each motto is generally discovered 
through the flappings and flauntings of streamers, and flags, and ribbons of the most 
gaudy colouring, and most profuse employment. The variety of articles offered for sale 
is naturally infinite, and the singular character of Chinese manufactures gives to 
European visitors the idea of a fancy-fair, rather than that of an established commercial 
emporium: the gables, sides, door-posts, and roofs of the houses, are adorned with 
devices in azui-e and gold, and the most gay and gairish-looking articles are presented for 
sale. Amidst the bijouterie that glitters in their stalls, are ready-made coffins ; these 
melancholy mementos of human vanity, are of disproportioned magnitude, and disgust- 
ingly adorned with painting and with gold. 

But the trade of the Four-ways is not monopolized by the owners of the handsome 
bazaars that enclose them; itinerant traders, and their moveable workshops, dividing the 
profits with the wealthier citizens. The continuous hum which rings in the Tchhani/nga?i- 
kiai, or " street of perpetual repose," so named, most probably by antiphrasis, because 
there never is repose there, evidences the energies of its industrious occupants, for " so 
work the honey-bees ;" and the recollection of the scene can never be obliterated from 
the traveller's memory. The whole central causeway is a dense moving mass, composed 
of operatives in every department of active life — tinkers, cobblers, blacksmiths, barbers, 
occupy their locomotive shops — booths and tents are erected on the kerb of the footway 
for the sale of tea, fruit, rice, and vegetables, so that little space remains for passengers, 
when the accommodation which the specimen-goods before each shop, and the temporary 
stalls require, is subducted. In the midway are seen, " in most dense array," public offi- 
cers, with their retinues bearing umbrellas, lanterns, flags, and numerous insignia of rank 
and station ; coffins, attended by mourners clad in white ; brides, conveyed in palanquins 
of glittering decorations — the cries of sorrow that escape from one procession being 
occasionally drowned by the shouts of exultation and peals of music that ascend from 
the other. Mixed with these are troops of dromedaries laden with coals from the 
Western Motcntains, wheelbarrows and hand-carts, and, an immense concourse literally 
struggling for liberty to go in pursuit of either their way or their wants. The confused 
noise arising from the cries of various venders, and wrangling of purchasers, is occa- 
sionally exceeded by a strange twang not unlike the jarring tones of a cracked jew's- 
harp ; this successful attraction of notice is merely the barber's signal for custom, which 
he makes with his tweezers. 

There is yet another class of claimants on public ])atronage plying their respective, 
although not respectable, callings, with as much zeal, and even more success, than the 
honest merchant in his warehouse. In this fraternity are included conjurers, jugglers, 
peddlers, fortune-tellers, quack-doctors, mountebanks, actors, and musicians. The whole 
tumultuous assemblage not unfrequently receives an onward impulse^ which must inevi- 
tably occasion inconvenience, if not injury, to many of its members : — whenever a man- 
darin or great officer of state has occasion to pass along this very public thoroughfare, 
a company of Tartar cavalry is despatched to clear the way before him ; and these remorse- 
less satellites, armed with heavy whips, perform their duty with a fidelity of the most 



reprehensible description. The situation of those whose nerves are sensitive, whose 
strength is unequal to continuous pressure, must be painfully alarming ; and so much 
is an occurrence of this sort dreaded, that Chinese females never venture into the 
busy throng of the four high streets, nor indeed Tartar women, unless mounted on 
horseback. As the causeway is not paved, the dust in summer is intolerable, and the 
mud in winter oppressive ; to these annoyances is to be added one affording grave accu- 
sation against the civic authorities — the want of drainage, or sewers of any kind. 
Exclusive of the more serious consideration of health, the nuisance that is experienced 
by every passenger is disgraceful to Chinese national character ; nor can the constant 
employment of perfumes, scented woods, pastiles, odoriferous tapers, and aromatics of 
many sorts, as correctives, be accepted in palliation of such defective institutions. 

And it is along this crowded, noisy, dusty way, that the citizen of Peking conducts 
the traveller whom he desires to admire the civilization of his capital; and it was amidst 
this moving mob of mountebanks that the authorities thought proper to lead our 
most memorable embassy at the court of Peking, to the great western gate, through 
which also lies the principal route to the imperial palace of Yuen-min-yuen. 


' He was in sooth a genuine bard ; 
His was no faint, tictitious flame. 
Like his, my love, be thy reward, 
But not thy hapless fate the same." 

BviioN — Slaiizas, with the Poems of Camoens. 

Amongst the many interesting memorials in the vicinity of MacaOj is the cave or grotto 
of Camoens, the most celebrated poet of the Portuguese. It is a rudely-constructed 
temple, standing on the brink of a precipice, and commanding a most glorious pros- 
pect over the peninsula, and the sea that embraces it, and the mountains that rise 
rapidly on the opposite side of the roadstead. Visitors are led to the pleasure- 
grounds of a private seat, "the Casa," with no inconsiderable degree of vanity, 
and thence to the little pavilion on the rock, where a bust of the poet is preserved. 
Should they, by any accident of education or defect of memory, be unacquainted at the 
moment with the chief labours of the poet, they are exultingly informed that " here 
Camoens wrote the greater portion of his Lusiad."* 

Louis de Camoens is an illustration of those great men whose merit was first appa- 
rent in after-times, while their own age abandoned them to want; one of those whose 
• Lord Clarendon wrote much of his History in an alcove in the grounds of York House at Twickenham. 









tomb was honoured with the laurel-wreath that should have adorned his temples. The son 
of a ship-captain, and born at Lisbon about the year 1324, he was placed at the college of 
Coimbra ; from which he returned, after passing the required time, to his native city. 
Here he fell passionately in love with a lady of the palace, Catherine d'Attayde, and 
was banished to Santarem, as the result of a dispute in which his luckless attachment 
had involved him. Strong passions are frequently found united with eminent talents ; 
and the ardent lover of Lisbon, was now the delightful poet of Santarem. It was here 
that he poured forth his spirit of poetry, that he bewailed the pangs of broken hopes, in 
numbers which are compared to the lyi'ics of Dante, Petrarch, Ariosto, and Tasso ; and, 
inspired with the most noble sense of patriotism, that he attuned his harp to lays more 
mournful — the wrongs of his country. Despair preying on a mind so sensitive, he now 
became a soldier, and serving in the expedition which the Portuguese sent against Morocco, 
he composed poetry in the midst of battles. Danger kindled genius — genius animated 
courage. An arrow having deprived him of his right eye at the siege of Ceuta, he 
hoped that his wounds would receive a recompense which was denied to his talents ; 
but in this expectation also he was deceived, owing solely to the machinations of envy. 
Filled with indignation at this studied neglect, he embarked for India in the year 1553, 
and landed at Goa, near to the spot where his father perished by shipwreck only three 
years after. At first he was incited to deeds of glory by the example of his countrymen in 
India, and exercised his powerful imagination in celebrating their praise in a lengthened 
epic poem. The vivacity of the poet and the patriot's mind, however, is not without 
difficulty restrained by that moderation which a state of dependence exacts; and CamiJens, 
disgusted with many acts of cruelty and perfidy in the government of India, wrote a satire 
upon the authors, which caused his banishment to the settlement of Macao. His 
appointment of judge at this place was but an honourable name for exile; and here he 
had, during several years, no other society than that of nature, which poured around 
him in abundance all the charms of the East. 

Leisure was found at length for the imbodiment of his great conceptions, and, selecting 
Vasco de Gama's Indian expedition as the subject, Camiiens devoted the palmy years of 
his life to the composition of the " Lusiad." The most celebrated passages in this immortal 
performance, are the episodes of Inez de Castro, and the appearance of Adamastre, 
who, by means of his power over the storms, endeavours to stop Gama when he is about 
to double the Cape of Good Hope. The poet is hardly responsible for the mixture of 
Christianity with mythological fable of which he has been guilty, for such was the pre- 
vailing taste of the times. To this taste also is to be attributed that imitation of the 
works of classical antiquity, which is employed in conjunction with the splendour of 
poetic description, so bright, so completely original, as to cause regret that fashion 
should have moulded the features of his genius in any respect. The versification of 
the Lusiad is so charming and harmonious, that not only the minds of the cultivated, but 
of the common people, in Portugal, are enraptured by its magic, and learn by heart, and sing 
favourite stanzas from it. Genuine patriotism pervades every line of this great poem, and 
the national glory of the Portuguese is emblazoned in every form, in all the colours which 


invention was capable of lending. It is for these reasons that the poetry of Cambens 
must ever be read with enthusiasm by his own countryraen, and remembered with 
all the tenacity of which memory is capable. 

And now, when youth had shed its bloom, and even the vigour of manhood was 
beginning to decaj', for the first time envy suspended its malignant operation, and the 
poet and patriot, of whom Portugal was yet to boast, was recalled from 

" His root-built cave, by far-extended rocks 
Around embosomed, where they soothed liis soul." 

Sailing for Europe, the destiny of Cambens followed him, and at the mouth of the 
river Mechon, in Cochin-China, he suffered shipwreck, saving himself from his brave 
father's fate, by swimming to the shore. The only treasure which he reserved from the 
wreck was the MS. of his poem; this he held above his head with one hand, buffeting 
the billows with the other, as Julius Caesar did, when he swam with his inestimable 
Commentaries from Alexandria to his galley that was lying in the harbour. Reaching 
Goa after this narrow escape from a watery grave, new griefs awaited him: and here 
he encountered renewed persecutions, being imprisoned for debt, and only released on the 
responsibility of his friends, who felt for the agonies he had endured by an exile so length- 
ened and unmerited. At the moment when he experienced the refreshment of liberty, he 
was encouraged by the patronage of royalty ; the youthful monarch, Sebastian, manifesting 
an admiration of his poems, and taking an interest in the poet. An expedition against 
the Moors in Africa being about to sail, the king, who conducted it in person, desired the 
Lusiad to be dedicated to himself ; and, feeling more sensibly than others had done, the 
genius and adventurous spirit of the writer, carried him along with him to the field of 
glory. Sebastian indeed attained his object, falling gloriously in the battle before the city 
of Alcaqar, in 1378; but Cambens, in losing his prince, lost every thing: for, with his 
death, the royal family, and the real independence of Portugal, were extinct. Returning 
to his native country, friendless, impoverished, envied, he saw that every source of supply 
was dried up, every avenue of succour closed, every ray of hope extinguished — and for 
ever. A prey to poverty and suffering, a slave alone remained faithful to him in his 
misfortunes ; and this humble friend actually supported his master by alms which he 
begged in the public streets. In this situation he yet wrote lyric poems, some of 
which contain the most moving complaints of the neglect of literary worth, and the 
ingratitude of mankind to public benefactors. Unwilling to survive his royal patron, 
and his Indian slave being no longer able to provide for him the necessaries of existence, 
or relieve his infirmities, he obtained admission into the chief hospital of Lisbon ; and 
there, this great ornament of his country — this honour of Portuguese and of European 
literature — miserably expired in the sixty-second year of his age; just one year after the 
last Sebastian had passed away from the world. Fifteen years afterwards, a splendid 
monument was erected to his memory ; and his works have since been translated into 
every European language. 



4 < 




He glorieth in his might alone, 

A strong existence hurrying on 
In conscious joy of power and speed, 
And with the great sun doth he play 
At rainbows with his living spray. Rhaiadr Du. 

The western parts of Kiang-nan, bordering upon the inland province of Hou-quang, 
are mountainous, arid, and sterile. Fruitful in rivers, their waters are with difficulty 
approached, not only from the ruggedness of their rocky beds, but the great depths also 
to which these have been worn by the eternal action of the falling volume. Granite is 
the predominating rock in the most elevated places, but a species of slate-stone, hard, 
and of an irregular fracture, forms the channels of the mountain-torrents, assuming, in 
every instance, forms the most bold and picturesque. At an elevation of some 1,500 
feet above the level of the sea, the Tay-ho, a chief tributary of the lower Yang-tse-keang, 
receiving the drainage of many hundreds of square miles, in a country whose climate is 
particularly humid, its whole accumulation falls over the brow of Shih-tan into a spacious 
basin of slate-rock, presenting, in the rainy season, an object of beauty, majesty, and 
interest. Superstition, the companion and the badge of ignorance, has appropriated 
these sublime localities to the occupation of sorcerers, witches, magicians, evil demons, 
or, at all events, to beings supposed to be possessed of supernatural powers, which 
they exhibit by the use of spells, cabalistic terms, charms, characters, images, amulets, 
ligatui-es, philters, and incantations. 

At the foot of the mountain-pass, which is much frequented by travellers between 
the two adjacent provinces, a toll-house is erected, where each borderer is required to 
drop his contribution to the spirit of the hills and the torrents, the principal produce 
of which is believed to be the performance of certain propitiatory rites, by the resident 
bonzes, for his safe passage, especially by the seven cataracts of Shih-tan. As the 
ascent is aided by stairs cut in the compact schistus, a firm step is all that is required to 
accomplish the journey; but, where real dangers are absent, credulity supplies those that 
are imaginary. In the cooler seasons, numbers of borderers cross these hills, and brave 
the terrors of these haunted glens ; while they carry, suspended from their shoulders, 
various articles of produce and barter, from their respective homes. More wealthy 
persons are conveyed in a litter, or a comfortable sedan-chair, to the highest pinnacles 
and up the steepest ascents, whether for the purposes of business, or from superstitious 



In this picturesque locality, and amidst the shattered crags that hang over the seven 
cataracts, grows the Tong-choo, and also a species of Rhus, from the seeds of which an 
oil is expi-essed, used in the composition of a valuable varnish. Here also the tea-plant 
grows wild ; and pines, both dwarf and lofty, adorn the cliffs on every side. The 
transfer of rice, the preparation of oil, or of varnish, the felling of pine-timber, constitute 
so many sources of occupation to the mountaineers ; but they have another origin of 
trade, little less profitable, in the existence of a charmed grotto immediately above the 
greatest of the cascades. Ta-Vang, a Chinese saint of royal birth, commiserating the 
lot of lunatics, devoted himself to the service of Fo, on condition that that most absurdly- 
conceived power would promise to spare men's intellects in future. Retiring to the 
seven falls, sometimes called the seven cups of Shih-tan, he there passed his declining- 
years in solitude and supplication. His grotto or couch, in the dark grey rock, is now 
visited by pilgrims, and numbers of lunatics, brought hither by their relatives, are laid 
on Ta-Vang's bed, which they believe to be instrumental in restoring the phrenzied to 
their senses. The deliberate reader may doubt, perhaps, whether the afflicted patient 
or his credulous attendant be the more insane ; but, whichever way he decides, let 
him not ascribe to the ignorant Chinaman alone all such absurd practices. In a 
closet at the church of Poictiers, in France, the bed of St. Hilary is preserved, and 
here lunatics are constantly laid to sleep, in the expectation that its miraculous efficacy 
will restore them to perfect sanit}'. 


Fatigued with form's 0))i)ref.sivt: laws, 

When Taou-Kwaiig avoids the great ; 
When cloy'd with merited applause. 

He seeks the rural eahn retreat ; 
Does he not praise each mossy cell, 
And feel the truth these numhers tt-U ? 

KiKAL Elkgance. 

There are two distinct cities within the walls of Peking, one occupied by Chinese, the 
other by Tartars exclusively. In the latter of these are the chief public offices, several 
sacred institutes, colleges, halls, and, lastly, in the very centre of this labyrinth, the 
imperial palace and gardens. Three spacious gates pierce the imperial wall, opening 
communication with the external or Chinese city, which is also fenced and fortified; and 
an inner enclosure, called " the prohibited wall," surrounds an area of about two square 
miles, devoted entirely to the imperial household, and only entered by his majesty's 
retinue or his visitors. The mural defences of the palace are built of bright red 
varnished bricks, covered with shining yellow tiles, whence they are also styled " The 
Yellow Wall," and are upwards of twenty feet in heiglit. 











The inner surface of the enclosure is varied by the construction of artificial moun- 
tains, the excavation of lakes with little islands floating on their tranquil bosoms, and 
running rivulets, interrupted occasionally by picturesque cataracts ; summer-houses and 
pavilions adorn the margin of the waters, and impart an interest to the numerous islands ; 
and the grouping of fanciful edifices, with clusters of trees, and masses of rock-work, 
necessarily produce a most agreeable illusion with respect to both distance and mag- 
nitude. One great reservoir, or lake, supplies the minor basins within the gardens, 
and its surface is constantly animated by the arrival and departure of pleasure-junks 
and barges belonging to the attendants and retainers of the palace. 

Pleasure appears to reign supremely in these fairy lands, and, were judgment to be 
given by the eye alone, that siren would be successful. But inquiry will soon correct 
the hasty conclusion, by discovei'ing the melancholy admixture of sorrow that is infused 
into all human histories. The double walls, that prohibit surprise, are not unnecessary, 
nor has the imperial throne been always " a bed of roses." There is a perilous uncer- 
tainty attendant upon making rice the national food ; and so frequently is this conse- 
quence experienced, that the emperor's palace would not be safe from the violence of 
the hungry, in those days of famine that periodically visit his dominions. The markets of 
Peking are frequently plundered in the most daring manner, and all the courage of the 
emperor's tiger-hearted myrmidons is requisite to protect the Tartarian city from assault. 
Nor are these the only dangers to which the imperial person is exposed. Though the 
succession to the throne depends on the arbitrary nomination of the reigning prince, 
this arrangement does not always prevent usurpations. An instance of this occurred in 
the succession of Yoong-ching to his father Kang-he. The son nominated by the 
dying emperor was his fourth, but that prince being in Tartary at the period of the 
emperor's somewhat sudden demise, Yoong-ching, who was a privileged wang, entered 
the palace, and seized the billet of his brother's nomination. Before the number four, 
which he there found, he boldly set down the sign of ten, and in that way made it appear 
that he, the fourteenth son, was the prince actually nominated. Seizing the sceptre, 
he ordered his brother to be arrested and imprisoned, in a building which is yet stand- 
ing, about four miles north of Peking, and there he detained him till death closed 
his melancholy story. 

In the year 1813, and on the 18th of October, a formidable body of conspirators 
attacked the palace, during the emperor's absence at the thermal springs of Je-ho, but 
being gallantly resisted by the present emperor, second son of the reigning monarch, 
the revolt was crushed without further injury ; and it is to this act of bravery, most proba- 
bly, Taou-kwang's nomination to the throne of his royal parent is to be attributed. On 
the summit of the loftiest eminence in the accompanying illustration, stands a monument 
of singular structure, but of still more singular history ; it was the last scene of the exist- 
ence of that race of emperors who had beautified the whole of these enchanting grounds, 
and raised so many gorgeous buildings amidst their scenery. A man whom fortune 
seemed to favour, as if destined to become the head of a new dynasty in China, availed 
himself of the weakness and the luxury of the court ; and of that indolence which, more 


than even luxury, had brought the former dynasties to ruin ; with an army of Chinese, 
first collected under the hope of bringing about better times, and kept together after- 
wards by the tempting bait of plunder, he marched to the gates of Peking. The ill-fated 
monarch, too slightly supported, and possessed of too little energy to repel, but with 
sentiments too elevated to endure submission to an enemy who had been his subject, 
yet determined to save his offspring from the danger of dishonour, stabbed his only 
daughter, and then terminated his own life with a fatal noose. Here were two iniquitous 
murders committed, by a man, who had not the bravery to die in battle, nor the moral 
courage to survive adversity. 


Your bonnet'to'it's right use, — 
'Tis for the liead. 


A cap-vender's establishment is not unfrequently a scene of gossiping, — a fashionable 
lounge, a rendezvous of those whose badge is idleness. Open in front, it is decorated 
with lanterns, and emblems of trade, and inscriptions, the latter setting forth the integrity 
of the long line of occupants, the quality of goods exclusively issued from that store, 
the reasonable charges uniformly made, and the total impossibility of trusting to the 
honour of humanity under certain circumstances. All these sentiments are expressed in 
characters of gold, on tablets suspended at the side of the open casement. A little rail- 
ing, partly for protection, but chiefly for ornament and architectural finish, runs along 
the external edge of the counter, and within it are stands supporting specimen or pat- 
tern caps, a practice adopted with ingenuity and taste by the hat and bonnet venders in 
London and in Paris. Entrance to the shop is often interrupted by a begging bonzee, 
in a humiliating posture, endeavouring to attract attention by the gentle humming of 
a familiar hymn, accompanied with the more annoying tap of a small plectrum upon a 
piece of hollowed wood, in shape resembling a pear. 

As the illustration represents a well-known and respectable store in Canton, the 
style of decoration, attendance, and fitting-up, may be taken as a sample of its class. 
The goods manufactured and sold here are intended for the wealthy part of the com- 
munity only, of whom the cap appears to be a special prerogative. Neither Greeks nor 
Romans wore any covering on the head in the heroic ages of their histories ; hence all 
ancient statues appear either bareheaded, or sometimes with a victor's wreath: it was at 
later periods that caps of various kinds, and military helmets, were introduced. It seems 
tolerably certain, that the Chinese, not many centuries back, went vvith the head unpro- 
tected against either sun or rain, employing, occasionally, the skirt of the robes as a sub- 
stitute. Indeed, their antique c/ievelure afforded them most ample protection against the 















inclemency of the season, and to an economic people possessed an additional recom- 
mendation. The preservation of this most useful gift of nature became the subject of a 
sanguinary civil war, in which Tartar tactics triumphed, and Tartar t3Tanny used its 
triumph so ignobly, that the conquered were compelled to shave the head in future, 
reserving only one lengthened lock, depending from the crown, — the badge of their 

Should the season prove intensely sultry, the tapering queue alone adorns the 
aristocrat's head ; in less warm weather a skull-cap of padded silk is worn ; and in still 
colder, a cap made of the thinnest rattan, slightly woven, having the edge turned up all 
round. These diiferent descriptions are adapted to summer and winter, to home and 
out-of-door use. The summer cap most generally worn is a hollow upright cone of 
bamboo filaments, the apex of which is terminated by a red, blue, white, or gilded ball, 
or by an opaque button, according to the rank of the wearer. A large lock of red hair, 
taken from the abdomen of the water-ox, flows from the insertion of the button into the 
apex ; and sometimes a beautiful agate, a lapis lazuli, or gem called yu, sparkles in the 
frontal border. In winter, the cone is exchanged for a covering of more solid manufac- 
ture and more appropriate shape. It is the cap with the turned-up edge. The rattan 
is more firmly woven in this than in the summer caps, but the ornaments, the button 
of distinction, and the tuft of hair, are the same as before. At this season, too, especially 
in the northern provinces, the skull-cap is adopted much within doors, and the bamboo 
pileum without. Almost all the social habits of this ancient people are regulated by 
imperial decrees, issued arbitrarily at various epochs, and amongst them are rules for the 
proper, rational, and becoming decoration of the person. These laws enjoin the exchange 
of the summer for the winter head-dress, and vice versa; and a broad hint is given 
to society by the example of the chief mandarin, or magistrate, of every district, as well as 
by an announcement in the imperial gazette, that the period has arrived when this pnrt 
of the national costume mnsf undergo the legal change. 


" Hark the fierce music on tlie wind, the atabal, the gong, 
The stern avenger is at hand, — he has not tarried long." 

Chapoo, on the Gulf of Hang-chow, owes all its commercial importance to the exclu- 
sive trade which it enjoys with Japan, monopolized by six imperial junks. The harbour 
is situated at the northern boundary of Chekeang province, and, as the sea is rapidly 
receding all along that coast, not only is approach dangerous to mariners, but the trade, 
most probably, will soon be transferred to Shang-hai, one of the free-ports of the 
empire. With the exception of the picturesque hills that rise immediately over the 
city and suburbs of Chapoo, the surface, for many miles in everv direction, is low, flat, 



and intersected by canals, some of which extend to the great city of Hangchow. 
Although the rise of tide at Shaiig-liai, only three days' sail, is not more than eight feet, 
yet at Chapoo it exceeds four-and-twenty, so that, at high-water, the harbour may be 
entered by vessels of large burden. 

The city is spacious, walled, with suburbs equal in extent to the enceinte itself. The 
immediate vicinity is highly cultivated, thickly peopled, adorned with mandarins' villas, 
pagodas, temples, pailoos, and halls of ancestors. The scenery amidst the adjacent hills 
has long received the unlimited admiration of travellers, and not unfrequently the 
emperor himself condescends to visit this garden of his wide dominions, this pride of 
China, and pass some months at a time in the enjoyment of its beauties. Residence 
here, however, is not either safe or desirable at all seasons, ophthalmia prevailing to a 
great extent, whenever there occurs a continuance of dry and sultry weather. 

It was on the 17th of, May, in the year 184"2, that a British fleet, under the command 
of ^'ice-Admiral Sir William Parker, arrived before the city of Chapoo; and, on the 
following morning. Sir Hugh Gough succeeded in landing a force of 13,00 men on a 
sandy beach, two miles east of the city, without the least opposition from the Chinese. 
With childish precaution, the enemy had assembled their entire force, 8,000 men, within 
the city, relying mainly on the strength of their fortifications, leaving the range of 
heights, a natural battery, and one that commanded their streets and the bay where the 
British lay, wholly unoccupied. While the British forces were ascending and forming 
on the hills, the ships of war opened upon the fortifications on shore, which were 
immediately silenced, and a brigade of 700 seamen landing, under cover of a heavy 
fire from the ships, drove the Chinese from their guns towards the city. Sir Hugh 
Gough was now in possession of the heights, from which the whole Chinese army was 
descried, defiling regularly through the streets, in full retreat. Their movements 
appeared to receive occasional acceleration from the fall of shells and grape amongst 
them, according as the howitzers and field-pieces came nearer and nearer ; at length. 
Colonel Schoedde's escalading party getting completely over the wall, the rapid volleys 
of his musketry completed the confusion and route. 

Three hundred Mantchou Tartars, feeling the degradation their arms sustained 
by the desertion of so large a force, took possession of a strong building in the middle 
of the city, resolved to hold it against every opposition. This little devoted band 
had wholly escaped the notice of the pursuing arm)^, nor was their resolute conduct 
understood until they became the aggressors, by dischai-ging a smart volley upon the rear 
of the Irish brigade. Some twenty of this corps turned to revenge the injury, but 
they were soon obliged to retire, several of their number being instantly shot down. 
A second party, however, soon succeeded, and boldly advancing to the entrance, received 
the murderous fire of the Tartars, by which Colonel Tomlinson and several of his men 
fell mortally wounded. British gallantry seemed to rise in proportion as danger increased, 
and the death of their brave companions, the undaunted courage of the enemy, only 
nerved the arms and steeled the swords of Colonel INIountain and his brave party. 
Assaulting this " Hougoumont" of the day with all their national heroism, they were yet 






unable to propitiate tlie fortune of war, and after the Colonel and his two lieutenants 
had been severely wounded, the position was again abandoned. What manly daring 
could effect had now been accomplished by these brave Tartar soldiers, as well as by 
their equally gallant enemies ; but military skill, scientific adjuments, and superior 
discipline, being at length called in, their fate was sealed. Colonel Knovvles now 
came up with the shells and rockets, and in a few minutes the little fortress was in 
flames, its luckless defenders were all either shot or bayoneted, with the exception 
of about tvi^enty, who were spared to grace the triumph of British military prowess. 

A sort of wild despair took possession of the whole population of Chapoo, upon 
the sudden discovery of our infinite superiority in the art of war. The men, including 
6,500 regular troops and 1,700 Tartars, abandoned the city; the women, ignorant 
of the English character, and equally horror-struck at the flight of their cowardly 
husbands, having destroyed their children, committed self-immolation, and numbers 
were found suspended from the ceilings of their once happy homes. Had our 
operations been a little more rapid, it is possible that many of those miserable 
events might have been prevented, for if the citizens but stayed to witness the gene- 
rosity with which our brave army exercised their power, indignation would thenceforth 
have pointed at the real authors of these miseries — the calumniators of British national 
character. Amongst the spoils of Chapoo were ninety pieces of ordnance, jingalls, 
matchlocks, bows, and gunpowder. The loss on the part of the Chinese was estimated 
at 1,500 men, on ours it is known not to have exceeded nine men killed, and fifty 


" I'the long queue and tonsure bald we trace 
The Tartar triumph — the Chinese disgrace." 

■ Conquest or Cathay. 

The ancient Chinese wore the hair long, a practice the aborigines of most countries are 
observed to follow, and only discontinued it upon compulsion. While they were per- 
mitted by their Tartar conquerors to retain their religion and laws, they were obliged, as 
a badge of servitude, to shave the head, with the exception of a single tuft upon the 
crown, that renders baldness visible. Time has softened the sentiments of sorrow 
that accompanied this humiliating mandate, and the adoption of the custom by all classes 
in the empire has at length obliterated the painfid recollection of its origin. And now, 
the universality of the habit has created a necessity for a very numerous corps of 
barbers, who are all itinerant, and placed under very strict surveillance, a severe penalty 
being attached to practising the art without a regular license from the magistrates. 


Not only the head but the whole of the face is to be passed under the razor, so that 
no Chinaman can perform this indispensable ceremony for himself, — hence an additional 
necessity for an enlarged number of professional operators. In Canton, alone, upwards 
of 7,000 barbers are constantly perambulating the public streets, indicating their locits 
and their leisure by twanging a pair of long iron tweezers. Across the barber's shoulders 
lies a lone; bamboo lath, from one extremity of which is suspended a small chest of drawers, 
containing razors, brushes, and shampooing instruments, made of white copper. This 
piece of furniture serves as a seat for customers, and its counterpoise, which is hung 
from the other end of the shoulder-lath, consists of a water-vessel, basin, and charcoal- 
furnace, enclosed in a case. No beards being allowed to grow, no moustache permitted 
to remain before the age of forty, nor a single hair suffered to wander over any part of 
the face, the attendance of a barber is lastingly requisite, and considerable dexterity 
indispensable ; and the adroitness which they display in shaving the head, eradicating 
straggling hairs, and giving a clean and spruce ensemble, is almost an object of curiosity. 
A Chinese razor is clumsy in appearance, but convenient in operation, and whenever 
the edge fails, it is restored by friction on an iron plate. 

But, shaving is a less scientific part of a barber's vocation than shampooing, a custom 
practised in many eastern countries ; and the instruments provided for this extraordinary 
mode of quickening the circulation of the blood, are not only numerous but delicately 
Jormed. The candidate being seated on a large chair, the operator beats rapidly with 
both hands upon all parts of his body. The arms and legs are next stretched, and with 
sudden jerks that give the idea of dislocation. Sometimes the patient is pulled by one 
arm, his head being pushed in the opposite direction, the finger joints cracked, and the 
quick beating repeated, the operator at intervals philipping with his fingers. Instruments 
are now employed ; the application of a brush, resembling the globular flower of the 
acacia, succeeds to that of the ear-spoon, a thin slip of horn, and lastly come the tweezers 
and the syringe. Nor does the extreme delicacy of the eye save it from the invasion of 
these professors of luxury. Several small instruments are applied to this tender organ, 
without injury, probably with advantage. The eye-pencil consists of a pellet of coral 
attached to a slip of horn ; this is thrust under the eyelids, and turned about with 
rapidity, producing, of course, a copious flood of tears. Shampooing, the ceremony of 
which lasts half an hour, and for which a penny is the usual compensation, is closed by 
paring the nails of both toes and fingers. The Tartar proclamation prohibiting the 
wearing of long hair, is never extended to the house of mourning; and when a family 
is visited by the king of terrors, their feelings are so far respected, that they may violate 
this despotic edict, and allow their locks to grow. 








" Here may be seen, in bloodless pomp array'd, 
The pasteboard triumph and the cavalcade ; 
By sports like these are all iheir cares beguil'd 
The sports of children satisfy the child." 


No regular day of rest and thanksgiving being appointed by Chinese lawgivers, the 
people are more liable to transgress the limits of propriety in seizing on occasions 
for mirth and festivity. And it is from this cause especially, that they are found to 
convert very many of life's usual occurrences, into pretexts for merry-meetings ; but 
no rejoicing can be complete, unaccompanied by a systematic procession, in which each 
person is assigned an active part ; jokes, in China, having no point unless they are prac- 
tical. Ting-hae, a populous, ancient, and commercial city, abounds in characters ever 
ready to participate in some feat of activity, some public display, or some pseudo-religious 
ceremony ; and the scenery of the locality, abounding in hill and dale,i wood and 
water, wild and cultivated districts, traces of early occupation, monuments of illustrious 
persons, and lofty temples to the idols of the land, gives to each festal pomp a character 
eminently dramatic. At the great pailoo, in the suburbs of Ting-hae, where a flat 
bridge spans a creek margined with sedge, and rushes, and flags, the landscape is 
peculiarly pleasing, and the spot is chosen as a theatre of mirth by parties from the 
city. An endless variety of festivals and processions gives occasion for numerous 
visits to these romantic passes, and the joyous dispositions of the Chinese render such 
pageants in the highest degree extravagant. Like the populace of ancient Athens, 
Rome, and Egypt, they connect the pretexts of their chiefest processions with 
notions of religion, or philosophy ; but, when these are tolerably exhausted, innumer- 
able others, of a confessedly profane description, are employed. Considering that all 
delights consist in material intercourse, the Chinaman concludes that his gods require 
offerings of food, displays of mirth, sounds of music, and everything that ministers to 
the pleasure of the senses ; and under this belief it is that he suspends images across 
the street, decorates his house-front with lanterns, makes offerings of incense and 
fruits, and strikes his head with painful violence against the temple-floor. 

Performers in a festivity are generally assembled in a booth or temporary erection ; 
where viands of various kind, fi'uit, pastry, and other delicacies, are spread in profusion, 
while prayers are offered, bells sounded, and flutes blown, with a determination that 
measures the zeal of the performer. The gods frequently manifesting indifference 
to the banquet, the votaries proceed to divide the dainties, some demolishing their 
portions, while others cast theirs amongst the noisy and mirth-loving crowd. Sanctity 
would appear to form no share in the ceremony : merriment, pleasantry, fun, in its 

III. o 


fullest sense, being the end and aim of every one's exertions. A bonfire of paper, or 
of other easilj'-ignited matter, lighted without the building, is the signal for clearing the 
temple, and for forming into a procession in which each has some particular duty allotted 
to him. An advance-company furnished with gongs precede every show of this description, 
and make the very welkin ring with redoubled blows of their muSledpIecfra. Next come the 
bannermen, bearing flags adorned with religious, military, or appropriate devices, followed 
by a multitude of flute-players and drummers : the principal part of the sport consisting 
in noise. Some treasure, some ark, some palpable object, must necessarily be carried 
in procession, to which, as to the chief character in a royal cortege, particular respect is 
paid, and each in turn is ambitious of succeeding to its support and carriage. Whatever 
be the character or object of such demonstrations, their arrangements undeviatingly re- 
semble each other. Burnt-offerings — pi-esents to be submitted in a hall of ancestors 
— a bride going to her new home — a corpse proceeding to its last one, — are each in turn 
the burdens of procession-men ; and the feelings experienced upon those occasions are so 
much alike, that spectators are unable to conjecture their precise objects from the demean- 
our of the attendants. 

An English gentleman rose one morning in Macao, at an early hour, to bid farewell 
to an old friend who had resided in China for many years. On his way he encountered 
a procession, preceded by a band of music. It occurred to him that it was a wedding, 
and that by pushing aside the curtain of the sedan, he might get a sight of the bride. 
But as soon as he raised the silk, he discovered that it was his old friend, whom the 
Chinese were thus honouring at his departure from their land for ever. 

P I U M - S M K E R S. 

Ah ! then, methought, my unseal'd eyes 
With wonderment and sweet surprise, 
First op'd upon a scene so fair. 
That ecstasy alone could share. 

J. S. H. 

The rapidity with which the crime of opium-smoking has spread over the empire, may 
be collected from the statement, that in 1821 only four thousand chests were in use, 
while upwards of twenty thousand were required, to satisfy the appetite for this narcotic 
drug, in the year 1832. Its deleterious and debasing effects were early known to the 
imperial government, and every means that benevolence could suggest, duly exer- 
cised to prevent its importation. Upwards of forty years ago, the governor of Canton 
threatened, supplicated, the rejection of this dangerous import; and finding moral 
sentiments ineff"ectual, artfully pointed at the monetary consideration : " Thus it is," says 
his proclamation " that foreigners, by means of a vile and poisonous substance, 
derive from this empire the most solid ji^ofits and advantages; but that our 






countrymen should blindly pursue this destructive and ensnaring vice, even till death 
is the consequence, without being undeceived, is indeed a fact odious and deplorable 
in the highest degree." Yet this very governor was himself a notorious opium-smoker. 

Increase of duty, threats of punishment, and obviously ruinous effects upon the 
human frame, were still unable to resist the passion, the mania for opium, that in a few 
years absorbed the whole people of China : and to such an extent had the contraband 
and illegitimate trade in this noxious drug proceeded, that when war was recently declared 
against England by the Celestial Empire, the imports of opium exceeded the exports 
of tea by three millions of dollars' value annually, which balance of trade in our favour 
was paid in silver. 

The public censor, whose power had proved so disproportionate to the magnitude 
of the offence, now declared that the buyer and seller of opium should be punished with 
one hundred blows, and be pilloried for two months ; and whoever should refuse to declare 
the name of the vendor was judged an accomplice, and sentenced to a hundred blows, and 
three years' exile. The severity of these regulations defeated their object ; for, henceforth, 
few could be found so heartless as to expose his neighbour to the cangue, the bastinado, 
and banishment, for the sale of a few pounds of opium. This result is much to be deplored ; 
for now the spendthrift, gambler, drunkard, and votary of vice in all her deformed 
aspects, drop into the opium-smokers, and make that detestable drug chiefly chargeable 
with all the crime and guilt of the Chinese. Opium may, in particular instances, inflict 
only one additional spot on a reputation deeply stained ; but in how many has not the 
fascination lured victims to the sin, who might otherwise have escaped the ruin ! 

It will probably be a melancholy satisfaction to Christian England to be assured, by 
competent and credible authorities, that the accompanying illustration does not exaggerate 
the deplorable spectacle exhibited by the interior of a smoking-house, into which the 
initiated alone are admitted. Lord Jocelyn, who accompanied a late mission to China, 
gives the following painful description of a smoking-house at Sincapore. 

" One of the objects at this place that I had the curiosity to visit, was the opium- 
smoker in his heaven ; and certainly it is a most fearful sight, although, perhaps, not so 
degrading to the eye as the drunkard from spirits, lowered to the level of the brute and 
wallowing in his filth. The idiot-smile and death-like stupor of the opium debauchee 
has something far more awful to the gaze than the bestiality of the latter. Pity, if 
possible, takes the place of other feelings, as we watch the faded cheek and haggard 
look of the being abandoned to the power of the drug : whilst disgust is uppermost at 
the sight of the human creature levelled to the beast by intoxication. 

" One of the streets in the centre of the town is wholly devoted to shops for the 
sale of this poison : and here in the evening may be seen, after the labours of the day 
are over, crowds of Chinese, who seek these places to satisfy their depraved appetites. 

" The rooms where they sit and smoke are surrounded by wooden couches, with 
places for the head to rest upon, and generally a side-room is devoted to gambling. 
The pipe is a reed of about an inch in diameter, and the aperture in the bovvl for the 
admission of the opium is not larger than a pin's head The drug is prepared with 


some kind of incense, and a very small portion is sufficient to charge it, one or two whiffs 
being the utmost that can be inhaled from a single pipe ; and the smoke is taken into 
the lungs, as from the hookah in India. On a beginner, one or two pipes will have an 
effect, but an old stager will continue smoking for hours. At the head of each couch is 
placed a small lamp, as fire must be applied to the drug during the process of inhaling ; 
and from the difficulty of filling and properly lighting the pipe, there is generally a person 
who waits upon the smoker to perform the office. A few days of this fearful luxury, 
when taken to excess, will impart a pallid and haggard look to the features ; 
and a few months, or even weeks, will change the strong and healthy man into 
little better than an idiot-skeleton. The pain they suffer when deprived of the drug, 
after long habit, no language can explain ; and it is only to a certain degree under 
its influence, that their faculties are alive. In the hours devoted to their ruin, these 
infatuated people may be seen at nine o'clock in the evening in all the different stages. 
Some entering half-distracted, to feed the craving appetite they had been obliged to subdue 
during the day; others laughing and talking under the effects of a pipe; while the 
couches around are filled with their different occupants, who lie languid, with an idiot- 
smile upon their countenances, too completely under the influence of the drug, to regard 
passing events, and fast merging to the wished-for consummation. The last scene in 
this tragic play is generally a room in the rear of the building, a species of morgue or 
dead-house, where lie sheltered those who have passed into the state of bliss the opium- 
smoker madly seeks — an emblem of the long sleep to which he is blindly hurrying."* 

It may be asked, can no remedies be discovered for a vice so deplorable, a disease so 
corroding to the heart of the nation ? Yes, let the Chinese abolish despotism, enlarge the 
liberty of the people — remove prohibitory duties, cultivate foreign commerce — establish 
philanthropic institutions — and receive, the Gospel ; then will the distinction between 
virtue and vice, truth and falsehood, honour and shame, be understood, and the duties 
of the public censor become less onerous and more valuable. 


" Again tlieir own shore rises on the view, 
No more polluted with a hostile hue : 
No sullen ship lies bristling o'er the foam, 
A floating dungeon — all is hope and home."t 


When Du Halde dwelt amongst the Chinese, Amoy was much valued as a commercial 
position, and, had the empire enjoyed free institutions, the trade of Eastern China 
would unquestionably have centered in this picturesque locality. " Amoy is a famous 
port, hemmed in on one side by the islands, which are high, and shelter it from every 
• Six Months with the Chinese Expedition, by Lord Jocelyn, &c. t T'lV/e Vol. II-, p. 69. 







wind ; it is also so spacious, that it can contain many thousands of vessels ; and the sea 
there is so deep, that the largest ships may come up close to the shore, and ride there 
in perfect safety. You see there, at all times, a great number of Chinese junks, and 
about twenty years ago, you might see there many European vessels ; now they come 
hither but seldom, and all the trade is removed to Canton. The emperor keeps six or 
seven thousand men there in garrison, under the command of a Chinese general. In 
entering the haven, you double a cape, or rock, which thus divides itself into two, almost 
as the Mingaret does in the port of Brest. The rock is visible, and rises several feet 
above the water. Three leagues thence, stands a little island, having a hole through 
which you see from one side to the other, and called, on this account, " the Bored 
Island." Between this port and Formosa, the islands of Pong-hou form a small 
archipelago, which are occupied by a Chinese garrison, and the mandarin who resides 
there has a constant eye upon vessels that trade between China and Formosa." When 
Mr. Gutzlaff visited this "famous port," so many years after, he found its natural 
features unaltered, and the prejudices of the people, or rather of the government, 
equally unchanged. The city, however, had outgrown the Jesuit's accurate descrip- 
tion, having a circuit of sixteen miles, and containing upwards of 200,000 inhabitants. 
Numerous temples arose amidst the houses, and pagodas towered over the narrow ways. 
Wealth has accumulated here in the hands of a few, leaving poverty still to be the lot 
of many, and the opening of the port to foreign trade will necessarily unfold new 
avenues of prosperity to the inhabitants of the city and suburbs. Already, a fleet of 
200 junks is actively engaged in the Formosa and Japan trade, and the province of 
Fokien derives its chief revenues from the duties collected in the port of Amoy. 

It was to this sheltered, secure, and favourite harbour, that the British merchants 
directed their principal expeditions for the revival of trade with China; here the 
Delight ship anchored in 1685, the Hardwicke in 1744, the Lord Amherst in 1832; but 
all their efforts were frustrated by the jealousy and inhospitality of the Tartar rulers. 
Besides one large island, Ko-long-soo, that interrupts the winds and waves, and leaves a 
passage on either side into the retiring bay, several rocky islets grace the approach from 
sea towards the river ; of these, Chea-soo, Sio-ta, and Toa-ta, are fortified. The granite 
heights that command the channel and the suburbs, are also dignified with military 
structures on their lofty pinnacles, but, so elevated above sea-level, and so insignificant 
in capacity and strength, that they are wholly useless as protective positions. These 
heights are much admired, even by those to whom they are long familiar ; and, in the 
deep ravines that separate them, are seen magnificent temples to Fo, sumptuous private 
villas, and lofty and many-storied pagodas. When the British took possession of Amoy, 
and silenced all its batteries, the scenery of these hills excited the curiosity of our 
brave soldiers and sailors, and, in their wanderings among the crags, they discovered a 
number of stone jars, coated with a tenacious lute. On opening these vessels, they were 
found to contain perfect human skeletons, dislocated, each bone carefully packed, and 
numbered or marked with red paint. The discoverers have not guaranteed any solution of 
this singular problem, — nor does any probable one present itself, even after reflection. 
in. p 




" So softly shines the beauteous bride 
By love and conscious virtue led, 
O'er her new mansion to preside, 
And placid joys around her head.' 

That peculiar reserve of the sexes towards each other, common to most Eastern countries, 
prevails with as much strictness in China in the present century as in the earliest period 
of recorded history. When the ages of seventeen and fourteen have been respectively 
reached by the intended parties to a marriage-contract, the father of the suitor originates 
the matrimonial project, and makes overtures for an union on grounds purely commercial. 
This infelicitous custom arises from the still more illiberal act of prohibiting all associa- 
tion between the lovers before marriage — a custom which strongly marks the inferiority 
of Pagan to Christian communities. If the practice be strictly observed, it is a cruel 
and slavish one ; if connived at, it mixes up falsehood in a rite that should be one of the 
purest amongst men. In the higher, that is, richer classes, duplicity, artifice, and conni- 
vance are permitted, and "a match-maker," called usually "a go-between," is indispensable 
to the formation of every anion. Once upon a time, " the man of the moon" was seen in 
a temple of worship, consulting the marriage-book of fate, by an enamoured suitor, and 
leaning over a green bag containing the red silken strings for binding the feet of 
man and wife. Addicted to fatalism like all his countrymen, the lover concluded that 
the stars should be consulted, and " a go-between" employed for the purpose of so doing, 
in his contemplated marriage. And this ceremony is religiously observed, and match- 
makers are so engaged professionally. To them belongs the duty of carrying those fond 
and secret communications, which young hearts burn to interchange ; and it is their 
peculiar province to have the omens consulted — the flight of birds observed — the sticks 
of fate thrown — and the stars appealed to. It is to this latter mode of ascertaining the 
sincere foundation of a mutual aifection, that Chaucer alludes, when he makes one of 
his most interesting heroines say — 

" I followed aye my inclination 
By virtue of my constellation." 

When the stars are propitious, the astrologer is remunerated, and the match-maker is not 

neglected, especially when she appears at the residence of the young lady, to announce 

the agreeable tidings, and demand a written promise of marriage from her parents. 

Upon the signing of the contract, rich gifts are presented by the bridegroom, consisting 

of gold, silver, silk, sheep, wine and fruits, according to the wealth of the parties. 

From this moment the lovers may be considered as united; the youth now puts on 

a scarlet scarf, a joyous emblem, after which his father places formally on his head, first 

a bonnet of cloth, next a cap of leather, and lastly a mandarin's or nobleman's chaplet. 






\ si^ 




The lady also changes her costume : she braids her hair as matrons do, fastening it 
with a pin presented by her lover — her companions now shave her face, and perform 
other friendly offices for her; after which they sit and weep with her, until the day she 
bids farewell to her parental home. 

On the day appointed by the astrologer, a procession, consisting of a variety of 
objects, and a vast multitude of performers, hired for the occasion, attends at the 
residence of the bride, to conduct her home with every demonstration of joy and con- 
gratulation : articles of household furniture, chairs of various forms, but all with straight 
backs, cushions, garments, lanterns, pavilions, and other valuables, are borne by the 
procession-men. These articles are supposed to be presents from the bridegroom to his 
bride, but being now a customary display, the whole may be hired from tradesmen 
whose chief business is to furnish forth all such pageants. Tall frames, resembling the 
laundress's horse, are borne aloft, from which depend sumptuous female dresses : these 
are followed by carved chests for containing them, then tables, stands for ornaments, jams 
and preserves, spirits and wine, fowl in cages, and hogs in penfolds. Geese, from their 
travelling in flocks together, at a particular season, guided by instinct, have long been 
considered in China as an emblem of fidelity and conjugal attachment. These animals, 
therefore, but generally of wood or tin, form a very principal symbol in a marriage pro- 
cession. Noise being requisite to all entertainments, vociferation is not only tolerated, 
but invited ; and while the bannermen, carrying flags inscribed with mottos, and decorated 
with the image of the four-footed dragon, exercise their lungs in swelling the joyous 
chorus, a number of performers on wind instruments and drums, completes the 
" concordant discord." The sedan-chair of the bride is always a piece of elaborate 
workmanship, covered with scarlet and gold, and calculated to impress the spectator 
with the idea that beauty and virtue in the softer sex are indeed much valued in the 
Chinese empire. Behind the bridal chair, or canopy, servants clad in scarlet liveries 
attend, followed by a number of sedans, in which the elderly ladies connected with the 
bridal family are conveyed. 

The procession having halted before the gates of the bridegroom, a purifying fire, 
whose flame points to heaven, is kindled in the entrance of the vestibule, and over it 
the bride is carried by the matrons who attended her from her home. After the per- 
formance of this ceremony, she is conducted into an inner chamber, called the " hall of 
songs," where she partakes of a repast with her husband, for the first and last time of 
their lives, and then assists him in worshipping the matrimonial goose : on the table is 
placed " the wine of the decorated candle," from which the bridegroom having made 
four bows, drinks three times ; and the bride, covering her face with one hand, with the 
other raising the goblet to her lips as if pledging her husband, completes the " excellent 
ceremony," the marriage covenant, by tasting the " cup of alliance." The day after the 
ceremony, the husband and wife attend some place of worship, and visit their parents 
and relations ; the second day, they receive their young friends and former associates ; 
and on the third, the bride goes in state to her former home, where an entertainment is 
provided for a number of bidden guests. 



■ Cpon those mystic waves of thine 

Time finds a symbol, and faith sets a sign. 

Thus does Time's flood roll silently away — 

Losing the sunshine of its earlier day. The Watkk of Life. 

Few scenes in the whole winding water-way of the Kan-kiang present a more 
picturesque assemblage of objects than the vicinity of the great bridge of Yuk-shan. 
Here the granite ridges descend from their majestic elevation to human accessibility, 
and to human purposes also, leaving rocky ledges everywhere along the river-cliffs, where 
habitations are erected; and there earth may be deposited, or disintegration take place, 
sufficient to sustain vegetable life. On one bank a toll or custom-house is established, 
in front of which waves the imperial flag, one of the most decided badges of despotism 
in existence. The officer of customs is seated before the door, sheltered from the rays 
of a burning sun by a bamboo umbrella of considerable diameter, beneath the weight of 
which his slave is sinking ; while the duty of examining each cargo, detecting violators 
of excise-law, and repairing of pit-pans for the service of his men, is proceeding with 
alacrity on all sides. Tea, silk, cotton, are conveyed hither in country barges, and 
with the stream, from the fertile district north of the Melung mountains ; but there is 
a superstitious reverence attached to the bridge of the " Nine Arches," which leads the 
Chinaman to fear a change of fortune, should he not change his junk when he arrives 
within view of this ancient monument. 

Famous as is the structure that bestrides the flood at Yuk-shan, the roadway is but 
a few paces in width ; the architect having only intended it for those who knew " to ride 
on a bay trotting-horse over four-inch'd bridges." No idea of terminal or lateral pres- 
sure ever entered the calm conception of the engineer ; he calculated on the strength of 
the materials, perpendicularity of the piers, adhesive quality of the cement, and obedience 
of the emperor's subjects, who would not dare to drive a team of cattle, if they possessed 
any such useful concentration of animal power, along its narrow causeway. 

Fauy-tchoui, a celebrated hero of the days of old, constructed this bridge for the 
safe passage of his army; but, being a sorcerer and a soldier, he declared it to be 
unlucky to pass under it, in the same barge that arrived at its arches either from 
the lake, or from the fountain. Possibly the hero might have distrusted the stability 
of his structure, and been desirous of keeping off" heavily-laden junks. However, 
some years after, a resolute character in the district, Ouan-tche, who conducted 
an e.xtensive carrying- trade, determined to make experiment of the fact, but, 
before he entered the arches, repaired to a neighbouring temple, or hall of ancestors. 
Here he commenced calling on the shades of departed greatness, and bowing most 
reverently to the idols and pictures ; his trackers at length becoming uneasy at his 
protracted absence, entered the hall in search of their master, where they beheld him 














enacting ko-tows with the utmost diligence, as if he had only then begun. After some 
delay, they ventured to approach, and signify that he liad been perhaps longer 
engaged in worship than was beneficial, or probably intentional ; but in vain — for the 
spell had bound him, and from that day to that day twelvemonth, Ouan-tehe never 
ceased making ko-tows in the hall of ancestors at the bridge of Yuk-shan. Satisfied of 
his sin, on being released from enchantment, he acknowledged his fault, and immediately 
setting to work, built the long liiie of store-houses on the south bank of the river, which 
from that period has served as an entrepot for all goods m transitu. 


Behold that land so bright and fair : 
Whate'er the eye delighteth in is there : 
Whate'er the teaming earth, the genial heav'n. 
Can give to man, to them is largely given. 

The planting, rearing, and care of the mulberry-tree, the culture of the silk-worm, 
reeling off the product of the chrysalides, dyeing and winding it, in subsequent stages, 
besides other operations connected with the manufacture of the great staple of China, 
have been both illustrated and described in the preceding volumes.* The accompanying 
view represents the buildings of a wealthy silk-farmer, situate on a tributary to the 
imperial canal, in the immediate vicinity of Hoo-chow-foo. This agreeable town is 
the capital of a department, in the fertile province of Che-keang, and the locality is 
termed by Chinese geographers, " The Silk-Worm District." From the productive, 
character of the soil, salubrious climate, and ample natural irrigation, the vicinity 
of Hoo-chow has been long amongst the most favoured places in Che-keang; and, 
the surpassing beauty of the scenery on the shores of Lake Tai, has drawn hither many 
wealthy residents. Historians make the first foundations of Hoo-chow co-eval with 
the Chun-tsew, or spring and autumn of the Chinese historical aera ; and they write 
also, that it was then named Koo-ching, and, under the epoch of the three kingdoms, 
Woo-hing. The antiquity of this flourishing city, however, is indisputable, as indeed 
the density of its population, high state of cultivation all around, and unbounded riches 
of the inhabitants, already sufficiently testify. 

Seated at the bridge that spans tlie afflux of the rivulet with the canal, is the well- 
known farm of Lou, a family settled here for ages, and the events of whose past 
years have furnished materials for dramas and novels that are highly popular. 
The buildings are rather comfortable than costly, affording accommodation to the 
venerable head of the house, with his sons and daughters-in-law, and grand-children. 
In some instances, (unhappily rare ones,) favourite daughters are permitted to 
bring their husbands to the paternal roof, reversing thereby the national custom of 

• Vide Vol. I., p. 56. Vol. II., p. 8, et seq. Vol. III., p. 25. 

III. q 


marriage. The raw silk, in hanks, is brought from the reeling sheds, to stores adjoining 
the homestead, and, when a sufficient accumulation is made, placed in broad flat-bot- 
tomed boats with bamboo canopies, and transported to the canal ; once on that high- 
way of commerce, its destiny, although in one respect fixed, is in another uncertain, for, 
it may be bought by a salesman as a simple speculation, it may be transferred to a 
home-manufacturer, or forwarded to the markets of Hang-tchou and Chusan. Lou is 
indifferent as to the object for which it is purchased, or the direction it may take ; his 
life, a mere exhibition of selfishness, being devoted to the acquisition of wealth, for the 
sole purpose of surrounding his rural palace with all the luxuries that it can purchase. 

It is from this district the silk is obtained for the robes and garments of the impe- 
perial family : the richest mandarins often bespeak the crops of a season from the same 
locality ; and, foreign merchants profess themselves able to distinguish the silk of Hoo- 
chow-foo from that produced in other parts of China. 


The sunlight gilds the walls 
Of kingly sepulchres enwrought with brass, 
And the long shadow of the cypress falls 

Athwart the common grass. Mary Howitt. 

It was the custom of the East, and in its earliest ages, to detach every profane object, or 
relic, or even sentiment, with the utmost scrupulosity, from the sacred shrines of their 
gods. This practice will be found to have prevailed invariably amongst the ancients — 
those that observed the law, and those that neither observed nor knew it. Mount Nebo 
witnessed the last moments of Moses' mission upon earth. Where was Aaron laid at 
rest? Abraham was entombed in the cave of Machpelah ; even the holy sepulchre of our 
Lord was appointed in a garden : nor do idolaters of all classes appear to have been 
less attentive to this regulation. Whatever may have been the root, origin, or source 
of the practice, in all Eastern countries cemeteries are detached from places of 
worship. The Chinese extend the regulation still further, for they strictly prohibit 
interment within the walls, or suburbs, of any town or city; properly concluding, that 
the resting-places of the dead should be at a suitable distance from the dwellings of 
the living. And this example is now beginning to be followed : Parisians have their 
celebrated Pere la Chaise; Londoners, their joint-stock eemetei-ies ; and in some in- 
stances, ancient tombs have been removed from the choir-wall, to which they seemed to 
have a prescriptive right, and consigned to spots less holj'. — Custom, long use of privi- 
lege, tacit admission of an indulgence for a lapse of years, produced in the minds of 
European Christian communities so strong a prejudice in favour of interment, not only 
in churchyards, but within the sacred temple-walls, that all attempts to induce its aban- 
donment have proved abortive, until recent 5'ears. The Grand Duke of Tuscany was 
the first European who endeavoured to establish a public cemetery, at a convenient 


distance from his city of Florence ; but the attempt to remove the coffins from the vaults 
of the diiFerent churches, produced an insurrection amongst his subjects. 

Chinese pagodas, Mohammedan minarets, and Irish pillar-towers, are independent 
structures, removed some little distance from the temple, or mosque, or basilic, 
because their immediate uses were not sacred. In later ages, the tower was placed 
on the basilic, and became the pedestal of the tapering spire. Cities of the dead, 
therefore, are in China separated from those of the living, but furnished with buildings 
and structures, and designs if possible more various and fantastic. A barren district, 
especiallj' if the site be open and agreeable, is chosen for the demesne of the dead ; 
aud here the graves of the poor are seen in countless assemblages, resembling the bar- 
rows so frequently observed in Asia Minor, as well as in many parts of Europe. The 
rich, however, assert their prerogative of distinction even in the grave, by the eccentricity 
and pomp of their vast mausoleums. Buildings of stone, or brick, often two or more 
stories in height, distinguish the mandarin's last earthly tenement. The designs are 
circular, polygonal, or some other regular mathematical figure, and frequently a mural 
defence of considerable strength effectually prevents intrusion. The crescent is a 
favourite shape for an enclosure, and midway between its horns is placed a pillar, or 
obelisk, or urn, or other sepulchral erection. Paths deeply worn between the many 
monuments attest the strength of filial piety, the grief of a widowed heart, the immi- 
tigable character of maternal sorrow ; and along these evidences of a broken spirit may 
hourly be seen the mourning train, passing to perform the last sad rites of sepulture, 
or to pour forth unavailing sorrow over a spot that just witnessed a similar scene. 
When the soil permits, trees of a drooping kind are generally planted amongst the 
tombs. The weeping-willow, and hgnum-vitae with its pensile branches, are the usual 
accompaniments of these sad localities, besides the cypress, always beautifully sombre. 

It is customary in China to have coffins prepared for the occupancy of particular 
tenants, from their youth upwards. The Emperor provides his coffin on the day he 
ascends the throne. Contributions are given to the friends of the poor, to provide 
handsome coffins ; and the humblest classes desire nothing more than that their remains 
shall be laid in "the^ eternal mansion," in a coffin of cedar, or other odoriferous wood. 
This point being happily accomplished, the soothsayers are still to be consulted as to 
the most lovely and suitable spot " in the ten-thousand-years' felicitous ground ;" and 
it is from the delay which this functionary makes, while pretending to learn the will of 
the gods, that the unseemly exhibition occurs, of coffins lying exposed upon the pathwa\', 
upon the greensward, or beneath the shelter of a tree. It sometimes happens that 
the priests are unable to ascertain by the Sticks of Fate, or otherwise, where precisely 
the remains should be interred : should the delay be so protracted, that decay actually 
takes place, then the patient relatives, placing the body on a pile, submit it to com- 
bustion ; after which they carefully collect the ashes, and deposit them in a funeral urn. 



What fates impose, that men must needs abide : 

It boots not to resist both wiud and tide. 


With less diversity of appliances, less delusive pretexts, than the Greeks and Romans, 
the Chinese practise upon the credulity of their countrymen, and, by artifices the most 
contemptible, feed their fondness for fatalism. In every species of situation, public or 
private, where the three ways meet in any citj', town, village, on the summits of the 
hiiThest mountains, in the recesses of the deepest vales, in the most unfrequented soli- 
tudes, in the lonely shelter of almost impenetrable forests, in situations as opposite as 
the passions of one human heart to those of another, temples of fortune or fate are 
erected, the doors of which stand open for ever, inviting the children of chance to 
enter, and seek their destiny. Here an altar is raised to this most capricious and 
purblind goddess, on which vases are arranged, containing flattened pieces of wood 
resembling the leaves of a Chinese MS. book, or the spatula of a chemist. On these, 
which are called the Sticks of Fate, certain words are inscribed, having a mysterious 
connection with each other, and with the contents of a sibylline library, kept in the 
temple for reference and consultation. 

In those deep solitudes, where the paucity of visiters would render the subsistence 
of a priest upon their bounty precarious, the temple is untenanted; the Sticks stand in 
their urn, protected by superstition only; and the book of fate, like the ladles to our 
wayside fountains, is enchained to the pillars of the altar. In great thoroughfares there 
's always an attendant bonze, a large supply of books of reference, and hideous figuies, 
allegorical of the darkness that interrupts our view into futurity. Occasions of applying 
to the Sticks of Fate, are sometimes of moment ; such as undertaking a journey, 
building a house, purchasing a new wife, or burying a deceased relation. The devotee, 
having paid the bonze in advance, takes up the vase, and continues to shake it with 
becoming timidity until a pair of Sticks falls out. The priest then examines the inscriptions, 
and, cpmparing them with the pages, or paragraphs, or number, in the prophetic volume, 
declares whether the applicant is likely to succeed in his undertaking. Indefatigable in all 
the imposts of worldly industrj', the Chinaman is reluctant to obey even that very deity 
whose aid he solicits ; and, should a first or a second throw fail to afford that entire 
satisfaction which he anticipated, he perseveres until conquered fortune yields the victory. 
The purity of his gratitude is now displayed by the clear flame of a pile which he 
immediately kindles, throwing into it pieces of paper, covered with tinfoil ; and it is in 
these ceremonies that the greatest portion of the tinfoil imported into China from Europe 
is consumed. 

The German mode of ascertaining the will of fate was almost identical with that 
now practised by the Chinese, and their custom of divining by lots is conducted with a 









degree of superstition not exceeded by any other nation. The branch of a fruit-tree is 
cut into small pieces, which, being all distinctly marked, are thrown at random on a 
white garment. If a question of public interest be depending, the priest of the temple 
performs the ceremony ; if it be nothing offered to the gods, he holds up three times 
each segment of the twig, and as he marks nine in succession, interprets the decrees of 
fate.* The peasantry of England sometimes consult lots also, but never with a serious 
confidence in their guidance. "I remember seeing a company of gleaners, who, being 
at a loss whither to bend their steps, took a walking-stick, and set it as near the per- 
pendicular as their skill would allow them, and pursued the direction in which the oracle 
fell."-|- The Jews were upbraided for a practice not very unlike this — " Mv people 
ask counsel at their stocks, and their staff declareth unto them."i 

Oracles were consulted by the Greeks and Romans, and soothsayers, augurs, and 
attendant priests were attached to Apollo's temples, in several remarkable places of 
antiquity. To oracular consultation succeeded a belief in the sincerity of the magic art, 
and many of the most powerful monarehs upon earth disgraced the regal purple, and 
dishonoured the name of sovereign, by indulging in a practice at once so wicked and 
unwise. Nero, Heliogabalus, Masentius, and Julian the Apostate, were all patrons of 
witchcraft:, and believers in the art of divination. Nor does this morbid taste appear 
to have subsided amongst the rulers of the people who flourished in the middle ages of 
European history, for we there read of King Eric, who by means of his magic cap could 
raise and allay tempests, remove himself or others from place to place insensibly, and 
cause misfortune to his enemies or rivals. In Lapland there once lived a witch, 
Agaberta, who could transform herself pubUely into various shapes, and foretell the 
fortunes of all who approached her. Simon Magus, Apollonius Tyaneas, Pasetes, 
Jamblicus, were all famous in the history of witchoraft, and are said to have had power 
to build castles in the air, represent armies in marching order or in battle-array, com- 
mand wealth, feed thousands, protect themselves from persecution, reveal secrets, tell 
what events were going forward in distant countries, and make the dead suddenly 
reappear on earth. The means by which they gave a character of reahty to their 
performances were secret, consisting of spells, philters, amulets, charms, images, stamped 
coins, reference to constellations, knots, barbarous sentences, metoposcopy, and chiro- 
mancy. By such a variety of instruments, they were enabled to construct the most 
complicated engines for delusion, imposition, and crime. And so deceptive, so attractive, 
have some of these proved amongst the timid and superstitious, that the very existence 
of the race of gipsies is attributable to the practice of a single one amongst them — 

* Tacitus de Moribus Germanonim. t Tredestant Lav. t Hosea iv. 12. 




" But O, how vile an idol proves this god !" . . . Twelfth Night. 

This is the most famous temple of Buddhism in southern China, and, as its follies and 
idolatries have been witnessed by many Europeans, the authenticity of the illustration, 
notwithstanding its extravagant character; will encounter less disbelief. In a vast edifice 
of wood, and paint, and paper, decorated with countless figures, emblematical of some 
good or evil passion of the heart ; hung with pictures, miserably executed, yet sufficiently 
intelligible, representing the trial, and condemnation, and punishments of sinners in the 
lower world, while no effort is made to express the pleasures of Paradise, — adorned also 
with gaudy ribbons, splendid china jars, and various inexplicable ornaments — the three 
great idols of Honan are enthroned. A dais is placed beneath a minor temple or portico, 
supported by wooden pillars, painted red, and richly gilded ; allegorical images of the 
past, present, and future, upwards of ten feet in height, are seated within it, and shining in 
golden majesty ; they strike simply by magnitude, for there is nothing commanding, inter- 
esting, or terrifying in their aspect Heen-tsae-foh, (the present,) occupies the centre; 
Kwo-kue-foh, (the past,) is on his right; and We-lae-foh, (the future,) on his left. These 
constitute the Triad, or three precious Buddhas, an ancient object of adoration amongst 
the Chinese. Before each colossus stands an altar loaded with offerings, and furnished 
with cups, jars, vases, and vessels for holding joss-sticks, and incense, and flowers, and 
perfume. Tinfoil is employed in profusion; pastiles are continually emitting fragrance ; 
and the flame of an ever-burning lamp represents the inextinguishable nature of 
Buddhas' rule over mankind. A tablet above the idols' throne is inscribed with Chinese 
characters that may be interpreted, " The great, powerful, and precious palace." 

The most remarkable features, both of Honan temple, and the creed to which it is 
devoted, having been amply detailed in the preceding pages,* it will be sufficient to 
add in this place those reflections only which present themselves with peculiar obvious- 
ness. Similarity between the ceremonies, of the early Christian church of Europe, 
and the Buddhists temple of China, is so remarkable, that none can be so hardy as to 
deny it ; and the parallels that may be instituted between the precepts of Christianity and 
those of Buddhism, afford encouragement to missionary enterprise. In the moral works 
of Confucius (Isaiah), there is a passage, plainly declaring, that an individual was to 
arise in the West, uniting in his person theofiices of king, priest, and prophet, (Christ,) ; 
that he should be attended by a female, whom the Chinese call "the mother of heaven," 
(the Virgin Mary) ; that at the age of twelve years he should withdraw from public 
life, but return again afterwards, and preach the metempsychosis, (the Resurrection 
from the dead) ; that having founded his religion he was to be transformed, (the 
Ascension,) into the god Fo, one person but three forms, (the Trinity) ; and this is 
the Triad, now represented by the three golden Buddhas. It would not be difficult 
to pursue the analogy further. 

• Vol I., p. 20, 37, 66, 68. Vol. II., p. 48, 52. 









^ ^ 

^ i 










The groves of polish'd spears, the targets bound 
With circling gold, the shining helms around 
Against the sun with full reflection play, 
Rival his light, and shed a second day. 

The Henriaoe. 

Political feeling, unavoidable discontent amongst a certain portion of the governed, 
and a growing desire for extended freedom, combine in exposing the imperial throne to 
daily danger. A Tartar corps, like the Swiss guard of Paris in times gone by, forms 
the chiefest protection against treachery or surprise; and these military men are treated 
with a marked distinction by their royal master. Although their fidelity has never been 
impeached, and the rays of imperial favour shine brightly on them, the least abuse of 
power on their part' would endanger their existence. Of this fact, the fate of the 
Janissaries at Constantinople, and of the Mamelukes at Cairo, presents an appalling 
argument, derived from the analogy of despotic governments. 

In the court of the Three Halls, in the palace at Peking, an annual review of the 
Tartar guards is held, by the emperor in person, as the new year opens. Along the 
embattled terrace in front of the extended colonnades, the great officers of the palace are 
ranged ; while Taou-kwang, seated on the throne, and surrounded by his ministers, looks 
complacently down upon the brave defenders of the yellow standard. 

These Tartar lifeguards might possibly display the most courageous bearing, if called 
to defend their monarch's crown ; but, their mode of life, and imperfect discipline, do 
not afford much favourable promise. Although it is a practice of the Ping-poo, a military 
tribunal, to institute comparisons between their great officers, and the most ferocious 
kinds of animals ; recommending that they should be " tigers in their fierce deportment;' 
although they deck their troops with skins of the lion and the tiger, and paint their 
shields with the most hideous devices ; yet is their uniform but a mere meretricious 
costume, and their discipline a most entire mockery of the military art. 

The full uniform of a Tartar officer on a field-day, or occasion of review, is compli- 
cated and costly, but not compact. A polished helmet, resembling an inverted cone, and 
ending in a crest about eight inches above the head, is adorned with gold and with coloured 
hair ; a robe of blue or purple silk, and studded with gilt buttons, envelopes the person, and 
descends to the boots, which are of black satin ; while the handles of their swords and horns 
of their bows, and stocks of their match-locks glitter with precious gems. The dress of the 
privates is less gorgeous, but equally fantastic ; their robes are of stuff striped in imitation 
of tiger-skin, their cap or helmet lofty, and shaped as a tiger's head; and, on their round 


shields of bamboo cane are raised devices, either a dragon's figure, or a tiger's head. No 
duty, however, seems to be imposed on the imperial guard, beyond the watchful care of 
their august master; they are permitted to pursue commercial avocations, relieving 
each other in their duty at the palace ; but they reside always within the Tartar city, 
which is distinct, and separated by a lofty wall from the Chinese section of Peking. The 
ceremony of a review within the Imperial palace is necessarily imposing ; the costume, if 
not suited to European taste, is still rich and brilliant; the banners are always numerous 
and of the most gaudy colours, while palanquins, lanterns, dragons, and other devices, 
carried by the standard-bearers, confer a character of sumptuousness, in which the Chinese 
falsely imagine that true nobility consists. None but the imperial band is allowed 
to perform: it includes kettle-drums and gongs of large diameter, wind instruments 
shaped like dragons, serpents, and fish, besides an unlimited number of clarionets and 





J 'IJ' s 






. ''c -KSx^ ^ ai<f. -^i/ic^ i^i>o/i.efy. 

F[SI-:t.K, GON * ro LOMDv 














Dice-playing, near Amoy .......... vignette -12 

The Polo Temple, Tai iioo 5 

Kite-flying, at Hae-kwan . ............ 6 

Junks passing an inclined Plane .......... 8 

Cascade of Ting-hoo, or the Tripod Lake ......... 9 

Loading Tea Junks, at Tseen-tang .......... 11 

Mouth of the River Chin-keang . .13 

Coal-Mines, at Ying-Tih 14 

Ceremony of " Meeting the Spring " . . . . . . . . . . 1 .5 

The Melon Islands, and an Irrigating Wheel ..... ... 17 

Propitiatory Offerings for departed Relatives ........ 18 

Han-tseuen, Province of Kiang-nan .......... 20 

Festival of the Dragon Boat . . . . . . . . . . .21 

City of Amoy, from the Tombs .......... 2;{ 

Arrival of Marriage Presents at the Bridal Residence ....... 24 

Foot of the Too-hing, or Two Peaks, Le Xai ........ 25 

The Fortress of Terror, Ting-hai ........... 27 

Grand Temple at Poo-too, Chusan .......... 28 

The Bridge of Nanking 30 

Ancient Tombs, Amoy ............ 31 

Pagoda and Village on the Canal, near Canton ........ 33 

Scene on the Honan Canal, near Canton ......... 34 


Joss-Ilouse, Cliapoo — Deatli of Colonel Tomlinson ....... 36 

West Gate of Ciiing-keang-foo 38 

Amoy, from Ko-loiig-soo •••••.•..... 39 

Nanking, from the Porcelain Tower ••••..... 40 

Silver Island, on the Yang-tse-keang . •.■...... 41 

Entrance to the Ciiin-chew River •••....... 43 

Chinese Boatmen, Poo-keou 44 

Hong-kong, from Kow-loon ........... 45 

Ancient Bridge, Chapoo ............ 48 

The Valle)' of Chusan ............. 4.9 










It lies not in our power to love or hate, 
For will in us is over-rul'd by Fate. 

The Unhappy Mabriage. 

Many islets sparkle on the waters near to the eastern shore of the Tai-hoo, and many pro- 
montories project into them, and many mountains hang over them; and all these occasions 
of improvement into scenes of greater beauty and attraction, have been ardently em- 
braced by the inhabitants. Villas and farms are seen reposing at the foot of a bold 
mountain-chain, that margins the lake for many a mile ; and two slender pagodas, one 
crowning the extremity of a promontory, the other springing up from the summit of a 
rocky islet, mark the entrance into Pine-apple bay. Here the waters are for ever tranquil, 
disturbed only by the arrival and departure of trading-junks, engaged in carrying away 
cotton, or importing foreign produce, brought hither by the imperial canal, from the 
great city of Hang-tchou-foo. Trade is active and profitable, requiring the establishment 
of a collector's office, which the tall pillar and the dragon-flag before it indicate. 

In the foreground of this agreeable prospect, and in one of those picturesque 
positions which seem never to escape attention amongst the Chinese, stands 
a Hall of Fate, the Polo Temple, whither pilgrimages are frequently made by despair- 
ing or disappointed lovers. There is a well within it, to which peculiar virtues are 
ascribed, in healing the wounds of slighted love, as well as in promoting the success of 
mntual attachments. The mode of employing the remedy varies with the character 
of the disease : a hopeless passion is mitigated by a copious draught, or extinguished 
totally by plunging a burning torch into the greatest depth of the waters. On the 

IV, B 


inner wall is suspended the portrait of an enchantress, who dwelt for many years 
on the Pine-apple rock, and, dying, left it as a refuge for victims of unrequited affection, 
which it is suspected she herself must once have been counted amongst. Whether the 
syren communicated her preternatural powers to her legacy, whether she was eminently 
beautiful in life, or that her portrait has been contrived to represent her as having been 
so, for malicious purposes, must remain untold ; but, it is believed, that many love-lorn 
swains, attracted by the fame of the Polo Temple, and having visited its shrine in search 
of relief, became so enamoured of the enchantress's portrait, that they were never after 
able to withdraw from it their fixed and fascinated gaze. In China, the instance of 
a goddess, " the Queen of Heaven" excepted, is remarkable, because their national reh- 
gion asserts that females are inadmissible to paradise, although transformation may 
accomplish that inestimable object. Beyond the temple, and at the farthest point of 
the rock that overhangs the deep waters of Tai-hoo, another, and still more effectual 
remedy for a broken heart, is provided. There the lover may fling himself headlong 
from the dizzy height, and heal the deepest wounds that capricious Cupid can 
possibly inflict. It was thus the oracle informed Venus, that her grief for Adonis would 
find a remedy ; in this way only was Lesbian Sappho enabled to obtain relief from 
incessant pain; and Deucalion was never extricated from the pangs of Pyrrha's love, until 
he cast himself from the summit of Leucate's rock. 


O royal sport ! 0, mirth-engendering play ! 
To cut his cord, and send his kite away. 


Puerility characterises all the sports and festivals of the Chinese; cricket and quail- 
fighting, shuttlecock-playing, the game of mora, or odd and even, prevail in every pro- 
vince of the empire : and to these very ancient, but most juvenile indulgences, is to be 
added the favourite amusement of kite-flying. Fond of tricks, sleight of hand, display 
of muscular flexibility on all occasions, the kite-flyer endeavours to infuse some share 
of these qualities into his favourite employment. Bamboo-cane is peculiarly suitable, 
from its levity and flexibility, as the leader and cross-piece of a kite ; and there is a 
species of paper, made from the floss or refuse of silk, that is both tough and light, which 
is particularly serviceable in covering a skeleton made of cane and cord. Dexterous in 
every manipulatory art, the Chinaman has of course attained to excellence in the 
construction of kites, and he proceeds to decorate them with the most fanciful ornaments, 
as well as to shape them into forms borrowed from those of the animal kingdom. Eagles, 










owls, and the whole feathered tribe, furnish originals for imitation in the structure of 
a kite ; and when raised on high with outspread wings, and painted feathers, and eyes 
of transparent glass, they represent their prototype with the most ludicrous fidelity. It is 
an established custom to devote the ninth day of the ninth moon, as the special festival of 
this amusement ; and on this joyous occasion children and aged men unite in the exhilarat- 
ing pleasures of a whole holiday's kite-ftying, on the most elevated place in the suburbs 
of each town. The panoramic view from " the hill of beauty," that hangs over the rich 
valley of Hae-kwan, cannot fail to increase the pleasurable feelings that attend the sport ; 
and the townspeople themselves feel fully sensible of the charms of the spot, by the fulness 
of their attendance at these ancient festivities. When the appetite for mirth and fun, as 
well as the hours of the day itself, are nearly exhausted, the performers endeavour to 
bring their kites into collision, or rather try to break each other's strings by crossing. 
Should they not succeed in this attempt, as children tired of toys, they give the sportive 
effigies to the wind, to be borne whither their destinies may lead them. One of the 
chief improvements in this manufacture, which the Chinese arrogate to themselves, is 
the introduction of numerous cords strained across apertures in the paper. The 
resistance of the air acting on these little bars, as the wind on the strings of an jEolian 
harp, produces a continued humming noise ; and when many kites are flown in company, 
the combined tones are both loud and agreeable. 

The Chinese have, in many instances, taken a first step in the progress towards some 
great invention, or sown the seeds of some valuable harvest, leaving the consummation, the 
collection, to wiser heads, although probably less dexterous hands. They discovered 
the magnetic needle, but failed to extend its usefulness ; — they have long possessed 
a mode of printing, but it has brought them little benefit; — they have known for ages the 
composition of gunpowder, yet made no advances in the art of war; their ancient 
familiarity with kite-flying gave them frequent opportunities of communication with the 
higher regions ; but it does not appear that, by these means, they ever became 
acquainted with the possibility of drawing down to the earth they trod on, that most 
subtle fluid, lightning, which they have so often witnessed in its shadowy kingdom. 
Yet it was by means of a kite that American Franklin established the identity of light- 
ning and electricity; and by repeated experiments with the same toy, that De Romas was 
enabled to construct an electrometer. In later years the kite has been enlisted by 
Captain Dansy, in the legion of inventions for forming a communication between 
a stranded ship and the neighbouring shore, whenever all ordinary means shall have 
proved abortive. 




Mecliaiiic arts promote tbe power 

Of man, in his bright, inventive hour : 

Yet, the greatest works the world has known, 

Were th' offspring of manual labour alone. R. W. 

However men of science, or lettered travellers, may depreciate the merit of the Imperial 
Canal, it is one of the most conspicuous monuments of manual labour in existence. 
It does not penetrate mountains by means of tunnels, or cross vast vales by aqueducts, 
but, preferring the level which nature presents, it traverses half the length of the 
empire, having a breadth and depth that have not been attempted in any other still- 
water navigation in the world. In some places, its width, at the surface, is a thousand 
feet, in none is it less than two hundred ; and, when a low level is to be crossed, this is 
efiPeeted by embankments, lined with stone walls of marble or granite, enclosing a 
volume of water that flows with a velocity of about three miles an hour, and always amply 
supplied. When the canal has to accomplish an ascent of any great length, the projectors 
appear to have commenced their labours in the middle of the slope, and, by cutting 
down the higher part, and elevating the lower, reduced the whole admeasurement to the 
required, or chosen level. These cuttings, however, never exceed fifty feet in depth, 
nor do the elevations in any instance surpass that height The control of despotic 
power could alone have compressed so great a quantity of human labour within any 
reasonable space of time, even in a country where the physical power of millions can 
be put in operation with considerable facility. But in China, it is found that the 
greatest works are still executed by the concentration of manual labour, unaided by 
machinery, except when mechanical power is absolutely necessary to be combined in its 
operation with human strength. The descent of the Imperial Canal from the highlands 
to the low-country, is not effected by locks, but by lengthened stages, or levels, 
falling like steps, from station to station, the height of the falls ranging from six to ten 
feet. At these floodgates the water is maintained at the upper level by planks let 
down one upon another, in grooves cut in the side-posts ; and two solid abutments, or 
jetties, enclose the inclined plane, up or down which the junk is to pass. On the jetties 
are constructed powerful capstans, worked by levers, to which a number of hands can 
be conveniently applied, and, by these combinations of animal and mechanical power, 
the largest junks that navigate the canal, with their full cargoes, are raised or lowered. 
Dexterity is required in guiding the junk through the floodgate, and while passing the 
plane, an inclination of forty-five degrees : to accomplish these objects, a helmsman, with 
one ponderous oar, is stationed at the prow, while barge-men, standing on the jetties, let 



















^ si 







down fenders of skin stuffed with hair, to save the junk from injury, should she touch the 
side- walls in her rapid transit. As the loss of water is considerable, and the means of 
checking the discharge both tedious and clumsy, the floodgates are opened at stated hours 
only; then all the vessels to be passed are ranged in order, and raised or lowered 
with astonishing rapidity. A toll paid by each laden barge is tributary to the repairs 
of the moveable dams, and to the compensation of the keepers. 

Civilized Europe may smile at this awkward contrivance, and at that obstinate 
attachment to ancient usages, which influences the government in retaining so 
laborious a process, rather than substitute our simple locks. But, the innovation would 
prevent thousands, possibly millions, from earning a scanty subsistence by their attend- 
ance at the capstans ; and, in the present state of China, the introduction of mechan- 
ism, or machinery, would be attended with most distressing results to its crowded 
population. Between the Yellow River and the Eu-ho, the canal, during ninety miles' 
length, is carried across a marshy district, at an elevation above it of about twenty feet. 
To maintain this level without the aid of locks, or interruption of floodgates, incalculable 
labour must have been exerted, and immense risks have been encountered — the latter, 
less successfully than the energy of the projectors deserved. On more than one occa- 
sion, the waters burst their enclosure, and inundated the country; on another, an empe- 
ror caused a rupture to be made in the banks, that the released waters might overwhelm 
a rebel multitude ; but, observing no distinction, they flowed over his own army, and 
over half a million of his most loyal subjects. 


Noble the mountain stream 
Bursting in grandeur from its vantage ground : 

Glory is in its gleam 
Of brightness ; — thunder in its deafening sound. 

Beiinaud Bauton. 

The whole surface of Hou-quan is varied by mountains, lakes, rivers, and plains 
succeeding each other with a rapidity that is rarely exceeded even in the most picturesque 
regions of this wide empire. Ting-hoo, not merely a spacious area, but the second 
pool in China, both as to extent of surface and depth of water, is surrounded by a 
district of exquisite beauty, independent of its amazing productiveness in every species 
of return which the earth can yield to its inhabitants. The numerous lakes of this pro- 
vince supply endless varieties of the finny tribe ; in the rivers' sands are found alluvial 
gold : iron, tin, copper, and other ores, are raised around the mountains, where lapis 
lazuli and the greenstone used by painters are also obtained. Wherever soil exists 
amongst the mountain-cliffs, there noble pines have maintained a footing, and, owing 
to the mildness and moisture that prevail here in combination, vegetable growth is so 

IV. D 


rapid and luxuriant, that this district furnishes more pine-pillars for public buildings, 
than any other in the central provinces. Orange, and lemon, and citron trees, are seen 
in every valley, dark cedars adorn many a sunny brow, and the native woods that still 
keep possession of the hills, are amply stocked with herds of wild deer. Paper made 
from macerated bamboo, and wax supplied by a species of wild white bee, constitute the 
principal manufactures of the locality; but, so joyous is the reign of plenty, so com- 
pletely does this district " flow with milk and honey," that, a native proverb which styles 
the shores around Ting-hoo " the magazine of the empire," adds also, " Keang-se may 
furnish China with a breakfast, none but Hou-quan can wholly maintain it." 

On an eminence to the left of the great cascade of Ting-hoo, is a city surrounded 
by cedar groves, and, although so loftily seated, embosomed in hills ; here Quang-tchu 
once governed, and was encompassed by the love and admiration of his people, as his 
native city was by its sheltering summits. The precipice above the waterfall was the favou- 
rite resort of this virtuous mandarin, who is supposed to have held communion there with 
the spirits of the glen, relative to the lost tripod, that is still searched for in the lake. 
On one of these occasions, however — whether the act were suicidal, or performed by an 
evil genius, has not been decided — he was precipitated into the foaming gulf that receives 
the raging waters of Ting-hoo, nor have his remains been ever since recovered. 
As to the tripod, from which the lake takes its name, this celebrated piece of art, the 
workmanship of the Chinese Vulcan, was an heir-loom in the royal family, and passed, 
like the stone of destiny in Westminster Abbey, along with the throne itself 
A deposed prince, resolved on defeating the successor of a rival dynasty, threw the 
charmed emblem into the lake, from the depths of which it is yet sought to be regained. 
In other ancient kingdoms such vessels have been considered as symbolical of prophecy, 
authority, and wisdom ; and, traditions of a lost or stolen tripod are connected with 
claims to dominion, in various histories. It would be difficult to discover the meaning 
of its triform, or the precise and accurate character of its shape ; it may have had 
reference in earlier times, like the three-stinged lyre, to the three seasons of the primitive 
calendar — the past, present, and future of the Chinese Triad — and have been retained by 
Christian countries, amongst its emblems and ornaments, for this very triune property. 

The fate of Quang-tchu, in his search for the tripod, made a lasting impression upon 
those whom he governed with so much wisdom and justice, and it was resolved, in con- 
sequence, to erect a temple to his manes, on the rock beside the spot where he is 
supposed to have perished, and to institute an annual festival in commemoration of his 
virtuous example. Feats, and sports, and mock-combats are held upon the water, the 
pretended object being the recovery of the tripod, for the purpose of placing it in the 
hall of Quang-tchu ; and they are conducted with a bolder spirit than others of 
the kind, from the very general partiality prevailing here for boat-racing, and other 
aquatic sports. Long boats terminating in a dragon's head, and called long-tchuen, 
are built for the occasion ; and in these, which are gilded and gaily adorned with 
ribands, the tripod, or other prize, is contended for with an emulation often end- 
ing fatally to the candidate for honour: one calamitous accident, by which some fifty 








lives were forfeited, had nearly caused the extinction of the festival, a council of man- 
darins having issued an order to that effect ; but ancient usages are not abandoned in 
China, without the exertion of ancient obstinacy, and the mandarins have been obliged to 
rescind their humane mandate, and leave the zealous respecter of Quang-tchu's memory 
to search on for the tripod from year tQ year. The festival therefore has been revived, 
and the very mandarins who first prohibited its observation, may now be seen passing 
the foot of the waterfall in their chairs of state, preceded by their numerous retinues, to 
participate in a scene which, however idle, is both manly and mirthful. 


■ The sweat of industry would dry and die. 
But for the end it works to. Cymbeline 

On a tributary to the river of " the . Nine Bends," and in the province of Fokien, is a 
romantic, rich, and remarkable spot, the resort of tea-factors, and the principal loading- 
place, in the district, for tea destined for the Canton and other markets. The hills and 
the valleys here are equally favourable to the production of this staple of China, and 
the tea-tree itself has been carefully examined, and its peculiarities ascertained by 
Europeans in this locality, with more minuteness and scrupulosity than elsewhere. 

In the process of sowing, several seeds are dropped into a hole made for their reception, 
the cultivator having learned from experience, the risk of trusting to a single grain. When 
the plant appears above the surface, it is tended with the utmost care ; attacks of insects 
are jealously provided against, rude visitations of wind cautiously prevented, and, should 
the tea-farm be distant from the natural stream, skilful irrigation conducts an artificial 
rivulet through every part of it. The leaf being the product required, every artifice is 
employed to enable it to attain maturity. For three years, or until the plant has risen 
to the height of four feet, no crop is gathered ; the little tree being permitted to retain 
all its innate power of self-sustenance ; but, having attained this age, gathering is then 
commenced, and conducted upon the .most methodical principles. As the youngest 
leaves afford the most grateful infusion, it is desirable to gather early, but this must not 
be done with a precipitation likely to. endanger the future vigour of the tree ; and hence 
no leaves are pulled until age has established hardihood. The first shoots, or the 
appearance of the bud, are covered with hair, and afford the fine flowery Pekoe ; 
should they be permitted to have a few days' more growth, the hair begins to fall off, 
the leaf expands, and becomes black-leaf Pekoe. On the same tree, of course, some 
young shoots occur that present more fleshy and finer leaves, these afford the Souchong- 
the next in quality will make Campoy ; a shade lower, Congou ; and the refuse, Fokien 

* Vide Vol., I. p. -26. Vol. II. p. 43 


Tea-plants are grown in rows about five feet asunder, the intermediate furrows 
being kept free from weeds, the asyla of insects: and the trees are not allowed to 
attain a height inconvenient for pickers. Indeed, when the tea-tree reaches its eighth 
year, it is removed, to make way for a more youthful successor, the produce of old trees 
being unfit for use. The flowers of the tree, which are white, and resemble the common 
monthly-rose in form, are succeeded by soft green berries or pods, each enclosing from 
one to three white seeds. March is the first month in the year for picking, both as to 
time and quality, and great precautions are observed in this ceremony. The pickers 
are required to prepare themselves for their task by a specific process. For several 
weeks previous to the harvest, they take such diet only as may communicate agreeable 
odours to the skin and breath, and, while gathering, they wear gloves of perfumed leather. 
Every leaf is plucked separatelj-, but, as practice confers perfection, an expert performer 
will gather twelve pounds in the course of a day. April is the second season ; — leaves 
gathered in this month aiford a coarser and inferior description of tea ; they are plucked 
with fewer ceremonies than those of the preceding crop, but, should a large proportion 
of small and delicate leaves appear, these are selected, and sold as the produce of the 
first picking. In May and June inferior kinds are gathered, and even some- 
times later. Leaves of the earliest crop are of small size, of delicate colour and 
aromatic flavour, with little fibre and little bitterness ; those of the second picking are 
of a dull green ; and the last gatherings are characterized by a still darker shade of the 
same colour, and a much coarser grain. Quality is influenced by the age of the planta- 
tion, by the degree of exposure to which the tree has been accustomed, by the nature 
of the soil, and the skill of the cultivator. 

The leaves when gathered are placed in wide shallow baskets, and during several 
hours exposed to the wind and the sunshine ; they are next removed into deeper 
baskets, and taken to the curing house, a species of public establishment found in all 
tea-districts, where the drying process is superintended, either by the owners, or by the 
servants of the drying-house. A number of stoves generally ranged in a continuous 
right line, support a series of thin iron plates, or hot hearths. When heated so high 
that a leaf thrown upon it returns a loud crackling noise, the hearth is prepared for the 
process. A quantity of leaves is now laid upon the plate, and turned over by means oi 
a brush, with a rapidity sufiicient to prevent their being scorched, while they are enduring 
a considerable degree of heat. When they begin to curl, they are swept off the hearth, 
and spread out upon a table covered with paper, or some other smooth and fine-textured 
substance. One set of attendants at the table proceed to roll the leaves between their 
hands, while another, with large fans, are employed in reducing the temperature 
suddenly, and thereby accelerating the requisite curling of the tea. The heaps are 
submitted a second, and even a third time, to the same process, until the manufacturers 
consider that they are perfectly cooled and properly curled. Coarse kinds, that is, 
refuse from the two last gatherings, being filled with stronger fibres, and possessing a bitter 
flavour, are exposed to the steam of hot water, previously- to being thrown upon the 
heated hearth ; and if the artist be skilful, their appearance and quality may both be 






materially improved. For some months, the dried tea remains in baskets m the store- 
house of the grower ; after which it is once more exposed to a gentle heat, before being 
carried to market. 

An obvious distinction exists between the farmer, or grower, and the manufacturer: the 
former separates the respective qualities with the utmost care, and disposes of them, in that 
selected manner, to the manufacturer, either at his own house, or in the most convenient 
market ; the latter removes his purchases to his private factory, and there, taking certain 
measures from each heap, mixes them together, in proportions producing the exact quality 
he wishes to give each particular class, or number of chests ; the farmer therefore is 
a separator — the manufacturer, a concentrator. And now the process of planting 
rearing, gathering, drying, separating, and mixing being completed, it only remains to 
pack the preparation into chests, and tread it down sufficiently ; in this convenient form 
it is put on board the junks at Tseen-tang, and other loading-places in the tea- 
growing countries, and carried to the stores at Canton or Macao. 


Does the bright heaven make of thy tide its glass ? 
Do the dai'k clouds above tliy mirror pass ? 
Do thy banks echo to the shepherd's song' 
Do human feet pass restlessly along ? 

Several tributaries discharge their waters into the Yang-tse-kiang in the vicinity of the 
Golden Island, and, by their combined effects, have there given to the channel of that 
noble river all the characters of a vast land-locked bay. This advantage is fully 
appreciated by native navigators, who not only make this expansion a regular halting- 
place, but in many instances the terminus of their voyage, by transhipping their freights 
for distant places, and returning for others. Independently, however, of the beauty of 
river scenery, which is here so conspicuous that the Golden Island was once the 
favourite retreat of royalty, exclusive of the concurrent advantages which the locality 
aifords as a commercial entrepot, the embouchure of the Chin-keang is a place of the 
utmost consequence to the internal security of the empire. It is the spot where the 
advance of a hostile fleet should be resisted : it is the key of the Imperial canal, for, 
a few powerful war-steamers anchored here, could effectually blockade the approach to 
Peking by the canal — to Nanking, by the Yang-tse-kiang. The peaceful and passive 
policy of China has not hitherto felt it necessary to fortify this passage of the river, 
but possibly the experience of recent events may humble their pride, or correct their 
prejudices, in whichever of those evil qualities the error may have its source. A pier 
or jetty raised on piles, and extending for several hundred yards from the great river, 
serves as a loading and a landing place for junks of burden; and stores for the deposit 
of merchandise, either for reshipment or immediate sale, stand in the very waters that 

XV. D * 


wash the base of the steep cliffs. A lofty rock, that rises like the frustum of a C()ne> 
and slielters the official residences of the little port, is broken into picturesque forms, 
beautifully tinted by the masses of lichens that shade its deep fissures, and by the bright 
foliage of the pine that waves over it. An assemblage of glowing white houses on the sum- 
mit, secure apparently of surprise, constitutes a sort of Tartar capitol, in which a garrison is 
stationed for the defence of the large cities in the surrounding district, and for the conserva- 
tion of the river. A path way,, cut in the rock, encircles it like the spiral staircase of a cam- 
panile, but the actual length of the ascent is so considerable, that few others than the 
residents of the citadel encounter it. 

The surface of the rock is both spacious, and fertile enough, to afford fruits and 
vegetables to its occupants ; and pines, and cypress trees, flourish here in numbers 
large enough to form a perfect shelter against the winds. From the highest point of the cliff 
that faces the north, a magnificent panorama is presented to the view. Immediately 
beneath is seen the city of Chin-keang with its quay and shipping, and fishing-boats 
arriving and departing ; a little further, the great river having extended to a width of 
two miles, is descried winding majestically through the land for many a li ; in the centre, and 
where it is richest, the Golden Island, clothed with the most luxuriant foliage, through 
which pagodas and temples occasionally peep, rises gracefully from the silvery surface, 
and immediately opposite is observed the opening of the Imperial canal into the bay 
of Chin-keang. A mountain-chain, composed entirely of granite, extends along the 
north bank of the river, as far as the ken can reach, and closes, in that direction, this 
amazing picture. There is no passage on the river more conspicuous by the presence 
and concentration of great and striking features — none more eminently beautiful and 
animated by trade — none of so much importance to the empire when threatened with 
invasion by any Christian power. 


" There is no malice in this burning coal." King John IV. 1. 

Coal abounds universally in China, although not raised so extensively in any district 
as that at the base of the Meling mountains, which bound the province of Kwang-Qung on 
the north. Where the Pe-kiang river, descending from this vast chain, forces its way 
between the rocks, native industry is actively displayed in the process of raising coal, 
and lading the barges for the lower country, where extensive potteries are established. 
Coal-districts are in general wild and savage in their aspect, and Ying-Tih, however 
relieved by the magnificent forms that appear on every side, partakes still of all the 
characters of desolation. Once clad with pines, the miner has disafforested the banks, 
and few dwellings, save the colliers' huts and agents' offices, contribute to humanize the 
prospect. Intent on gain, at least on occupation, a dense population is collected here, 
finding homes in miserable cottages on the summit of the cliff, or occasionally in the 















very bowels of the earth. No assistance being derived from machinery, no coal is raised 
.through upright shafts, after the depth becomes inconvenient, or water collects in the 
pit; so that the principal and most profitable mode of working, consists in driving 
horizontal levels, or adits, into the front of the rock that overhangs the river. In this 
way water is readily drawn off, ingress and egress easily accomplished, and the coal dis- 
charged into the barges, immediately from the mouth of the pit. A fleet of junks is 
always assembled beneath the beetling brow of Ying-Tih, waiting their turn ; some 
just under the entrance of an adit, others at the foot of a long flight of steps that 
descend from shafts sunk in higher parts of the hills. Carriers appear in perpetual 
motion on the stairs hewn with vast labour in the rock, bringing the coal from an adit 
to the junks below, or returning for another load. Neither barrows, nor wains, nor 
any mechanical advantage, is seized by the colliers in this operation ; two baskets, sus- 
pended from a bamboo cane that rests across the shoulders, being the only adjutory 
means employed. Fossil, bituminous, and stone coal are found in Cliina, but the last 
kind appears to be most prevalent. From the pit it is frequently taken to places where 
it is charred a little, before use ; and coal-dust combined with earth makes a convenient 
mixture for rice-stoves. So early as the age of Marco Polo, the Venetian traveller, this 
valuable mineral was familiarly known to the Chinese, yet they do not appear to have 
applied it to manufacturing purposes. " There is found," writes that eminent traveller, 
"a sort of black stone, which they dig out of mountains, where it runs in veins. When 
lighted it burns like charcoal, and retains the fire much better than wood : insomuch 
that it may be preserved during the night, and in the morning be found still burning. 
These stones do not flame, excepting a little when first lighted, but during their igni- 
tion give out a considerable heat." 


" Come, gentle Spring, ethereal mildness, come, 
And from the bosom of j-on dropping cloud. 
While music wakes iiround, veil'd in a shower 
Of shadowing roses, on our plains descend." Thomson. 

National amusements amongst the Chinese are generally associated with pretended 
sanctity, or rather actual superstition; and every cardinal event in earthly affairs is referred 
in their stolid creed, to some revolution of the heavenly bodies — some phenomenon in 
the firmament — some periodic change in the great government of the universe. Little 
acquainted with the real forms of the planetary orbits, they pay much attention to the 
solar and lunar motions, and are zealous in their celebration of festivities in honour of 
both. When the sun is in the fifteenth of Aquarius, and when the second February 
moon appears, it is the custom to form a. procession, and go forth to meet the coming 
spring. Before, however, the festal day arrives, the more pious portion of the idolaters 
visit the various temples of Fo, or of Taou, or the Hall of Confucius, or those fanes dedi- 
cated to eminent men of times passed by. Those less infected with superstitious enthu- 
siasm, take advantage of the prevailing idleness, and pay periodical visits to their 


friends and relations in distant provinces, or make parties of pleasure to favourite places 
of recreation. A third class, however, uniting the extremes of riot and religion, devote 
their leisure to the joyous celebration of the approaching season. A decade of days is 
appropriated to the ceremonies specified, and distinguished by the object of worship on 
each day respectively. The fowl, dog, pig, sheep, ox, horse, man, grain, hemp, and pea, 
are the natural products that constitute the subject of procession and veneration suc- 
cessively. Two of the ten days are held in greater reverence than the rest ; these are 
the festivals of man and of the buffalo. On the latter occasion, a procession, formed 
at a concerted place of rendezvous, advances to some rural temple, where it is received 
bv the chief magistrate of the district, who oifers an accustomed sacrifice, and pros- 
trates himself before the rude emblems of the season, borne by the procession-men. 
All the mummers are decorated with ribands or garlands ; some are supplied with instru- 
ments of music, such as drums, gongs, horns ; others carry banners, lanterns, or repre- 
sentations of pine-apples, and fruits of larger growth. Boys, dressed like satyrs or 
fauns, and seated on rustic altars, or on the branches of trees, are carried along in 
litters ; on other stages are arranged little maids, dressed like Flora, supporting the 
camellia, as figurative of the tea-plant, the usefulness of the leaf and the beauty of the 
blossom being meant to express the distinguishing characters of the softer sex. Above 
all these litters, and standards, and lanterns, rises a huge buffalo, or water-ox, made of 
clav, and borne by a number of able-bodied worshippers, dressed in spring colours. 
It is not unusual to have a hundred tables, or litters, in a procession, each sustaining 
a number of boys or girls, an efiigy of the water-ox, or of the human face divine. 
Arriving at the door of an appointed temple, the che-foo, who had been in waiting there 
from the preceding day, advances to welcome them, in his capacity of Priest of Spring. 
He is pro tempore the highest officer in the district, exacting obedience from the 
viceroy, should they meet, during his ten days' sovereignty. Gorgeously attired, and 
shaded beneath an umbrella of state, enriched with embroidery, he delivers a discourse 
upon the praises of spring, and recommends the cause of husbandry ; after which he 
strikes the figure of the water-ox three times with a whip, as the commencement of the 
labours of the plough. This is the signal for general action ; the multitude now proceed 
to stone the buffalo, from which, as it tumbles to pieces, numbers of little images fall out, 
for which a general scramble takes place. Proceeding to the various public offices, the 
cortege halts in front of each, and there makes a noisy demonstration, in return for the 
images, or medals, so generously thrown amongst them by the authorities. 

The ceremony observed on " Man-day,'' vs^hen an image of the human form is carried 
about in triumph, is in all respects identical- Government supply the litter-carriers, and 
the litter-men, (Tae-Suey) and the effigy which is worshipped as " the Deity of the 
Year," in allusion to the cycle of sixty years employed by the Chinese in their chrono- 
logical computations. There is a festival observed at Palermo, and called " The 
Triumph of St. Rosalia," which in its extravagance and arrangements very much 
resembles " Meeting the Spring," but differs altogether in its objects. However, the 
festival of Apis, in ancient Egypt, resembles the Chinese feast in every respect. 

• Vide " Shores and Islands of the Mediterranean," p. 48. 











To vanous use their various streams they bring, 
The people one, and one supplies the king. 

Gardens of Alcinous. 

Modes of raising water with facility from wells and rivers, for domestic and agricul- 
tural purposes, must have been peculiarly studied by Eastern nations, where the 
the soil is arid — -the atmosphere sultry. The Athenians, in their earliest ages, had no 
other beverage than water, hence the loud praises of its merits by their chiefest poets: but 
they did not then possess any mechanical contrivances for raising it to the surface. Near 
the mouth of each public well a cylinder of marble was fixed, up the side of which the 
laden bucket was drawn by a hand-rope, a fact distinctly attested by grooves of some 
inches in depth, worn in the stone by the friction of the rope. To this rude mode the aque- 
duct succeeded, on which the great cities of antiquity appear to have expended an extrava- 
gant share of labour. The Thracians improved on the Athenian plan, by cutting a spiral 
staircase down into the rock, and arching over the well, by which the rope and bucket 
were superseded. Before the invention of pumps the Thracian well was familiar in 
Great Britain, and, an act of parliament was passed in the Vlllth Henry's reign for the 
special protection of one of these primitive fountains at Hampstead, about five hundred 
yards below the church, " that the citizens of London might obtain water from the 
bottom of the heath." In Roumelia, water for irrigation was raised by means of a large 
lever, having a bucket at one end with a counterpoise of stones at the other; a plan still 
practised by the Chinese. There, every cavity is made tributary to the supply or preser- 
vation of water ; and fountains, or large reservoirs, are almost held in reverence. 

It is unnecessary to dwell upon the care bestowed by ancient governments in affording 
a sufficient supply of pure water to large assemblages of people. The Claudian aqueduct 
extended fifteen miles, and was carried to Rome on arches a hundred and nine feet high. 
There were besides fourteen similar aqueducts, with seven hundred cisterns for the 
public supply, and every house was furnished with separate pipes and channels. 
Beneath Constantinople is an ancient reservoir, three hundred and thirty-six feet long, 
one hundred and eighty broad, and covered with marble arches, which three hundred 
and thirty-six pillars support. The aqueducts of Carthage in Africa, and Segovia in 
Spain, as well as the cisterns of Alexandria, are amongst the most amazing monuments 
of civilization in existence. Of all these nations, none so much resemble the Chinese, in 
their mode of raising and conducting water for irrigation, as the Egyptians. To distribute 
the inundations of the Nile advantageously, they constructed eighty canals, some of them 
a hundred miles in length, and excavated three artificial lakes, Moeris, Behira, and Mare- 
otis. From these vast cisterns the water was raised over mounds and other obstructions 
by a series of buckets connected by chains, and moved by a wheel, each bucket dis- 
charging its contents as it crossed the summit of operations. Oxen were employed occa- 

IV. E 


sionally to work the irrigating machinery, and it is said that Archimedes borrowed from 
this ancient device his idea of "the cochlion or screw" for raising water. One mode 
employed by the Chinese resembles that already noticed as familiar to the Turks of Rou- 
melia; and their chain-pump, the type of the English tread-mill, is identical with the 
Egyptian system of buckets. A third contrivance of the Chinese agriculturist, still better 
entitled to the claim of ingenuity, is the bamboo water-wheel, although the praise of its first 
invention has been claimed by others. The great moving power, called the Persian water- 
wheel, because that people disfigured its simplicity, is fitted in a strong-wooden frame, and, 
when employed for raising water, float-boards are attached to the outside of its circular 
rim. From the inside of the rim strong iron rods project horizontally, from each of which 
a square bucket is suspended by iron loops, so that, in ascending and descending with 
the revolutions of the wheel, all may hang perpendicularly, except those that are dipped 
in the water, and that one which is at the highest point. Near to the top of the frame, 
and at the side opposite to that on which the wheel revolves, a trough projects so far as 
to intercept the buckets and tilt them, compelling each to resign its contents to the trough 
in turn. Springs are affixed to that side of the bucket which comes in contact with the 
trough, by which the shock is alleviated, and the tilting made more effectual. 

The Chinese water-wheel, which has been minutely described in the preceding pages,* 
is precisely similar in its principle and effects to that used in Persia. It is formed wholly 
of bamboo : short pieces of large diameter, having one end stopped up, are fixed at 
equal intervals on the outer rim of the wheel. Not precisely horizontally, but at such 
an angle as allows them to dip into the stream, fill themselves, and, retaining their 
burden during a semi-revolution, discharge it into the trough prepared for its reception. 
Such wheels prevail extensively in the flat district of the Melon Islands, which is inter- 
sected by the branches of the Kan-keang just before their influx into the Poyang lake. 
There the coup d'ceil takes in a hundred wheels at a time, each capable of raising three 
hundred tons of water every four and twenty hours. 


That so the shadows be not unappeased, 
Nor we disturbed with prodigies on earth. 

Titos Andronicus. 

It is probable that the most accomplished Europeans who have hitherto travelled in 
China, made themselves but imperfectly masters of the rites and ceremonies of the 
people. The length of years during which idolatry has reigned here is alone an expla- 
nation of the multitude of absurdities that have successively supervened — absurdities 
so palpable, that foreigners, especially Christians, have treated them with contempt. 

* Vide Vol. I. p. 65. Vol. III. p. 31. 











Hence it is, that when access is permitted to the iialls, and temples, and public places 
of China, we meet at every step with some new object of surprise. Yet in their customs 
and manners we uniformly trace some identity with other ancient kingdoms — some 
analogy so striking, that we are insensibly led into the conclusion, that all the inhabit- 
ants of this round world must inevitably be members of the great first family. 

In the extraordinary confusion of ceremonies relative to the shades of the departed, 
we trace the sacrificial oblations which the Greeks deemed necessary, to open the gates 
of Orcus to a living adventurer ; and there appears but little difference between the 
Chinese offerings for the repose of dead men's souls, and the Latin rite of inhuming 
the material part, that the immaterial might be allowed to cross the river Styx. 'Twas 
for this boon the mariner supplicated Archytas : — 

Nor thou, my friend, refuse mtli impious hand, 
A little portion of this wandering sand. 

His spirit could not pass to Elysium, and be at rest, until this last sad ceremony was 
performed. But in the Chinese practice, something more selfish is implied than obtain- 
ing a passport to the seats of the blessed for their departed friend. They dread his 
re-appearance on earth in a spectral form, to terrify, if not to avenge, the injuries done 
to his memory. They hear him exclaiming : — 

My curses shall pursue the guilty deed, 
And all in vain thy richest victims bleed. 

A connection between the Chinese propitiatory oblations and the mythology of the 
Greeks and Romans, is still more obvious than has been stated. The former are supposed 
to have originated in the descent of a Chinese prince to the regions of Yen- Wang, to 
rescue his mother, and bring her back again to the habitable globe. Having succeeded 
in his undertaking, he related to his countrymen the happiness of the virtuous, and the 
punishments of the vicious, in the other world, and enjoined propitiatory sacrifices to 
appease the shades of friends deceased. Here we trace the descent of Orpheus to rescue 
Eurydice, of ^"Eneas to consult Anchises, of Ulysses to interrogate Tiresias — a plot as 
old as poesy itself, and not disdained in the age of Dante. The princely visitor of the lower 
regions returned to the upper world on the first day of the seventh moon, which falls 
some time in the month of August, and this event is commemorated by oblations and 
prayers, made before special altars, to avert the wrath of the angry shades, or influence 
the Chinese Pluto in the votaries' favour. A temporary temple being erected for the 
occasion, its walls are hung with ill-designed, and badly painted, representations of the tor- 
tures to which the wicked are incessantly exposed in Yen- Wang's purgatory. Effigies of 
evil deities stand around, auxiliaries in establishing a reign of terror. Numerous altars 
are raised to the manes of the dead, adorned with every species of toy and ornament which 
the resources of the suppliant can congregate. Bonzes attend, to direct the attitude of 
prayer, as well as the peculiar request which may be preferred before the altar. The 
priest's next duty is to chant a sort of requiem for the souls of the departed, accom- 
panied by low murmurs of the " doubling drum." Food, including substantial and 
delicate kinds, is also offered in profusion, along with quantities of coloured paper. 


representing vestments, all which it is imagined that spectres require in the Elysian 
plains. At the close, however, of the solemn ceremony, the garments are committed 
to the stove that stands in the temple — the food consigned to the stomachs of the 
bonzes — and the votaries depart to their homes with tumult. 


Oh, would I were thy shoe, to be 
Daily trodden on by thee. 


The poet Pih-kew-e celebrates the salubrious climate and the exquisite natural beauties 
of Han-tseuen, in all the pomp of Chinese hyperbole. "On the lofty summits, where 
the white clouds rest, the milky source is elevated : the fountain has no heart, but, 
self-burning, rushes forth down the mountain, gathering new power as it falls, and 
appears in the full tide of majesty when it comes within the sight of man." Although 
upwards of twenty li from the city of Soo-chou-foo, this picturesque locality is the 
frequent scene of pleasure-parties, — the study of such artists as China yet can boast 
of, — and the favourite theme of her most popular lyrists. Whether they should be 
represented as guide-books, tours, or topographical productions generally, many volumes 
have been written by Chinese authors upon the mineral and vegetable productions of 
the Tae-ping chain, to which Han-tseuen belongs ; and many, also, upon the charms of 
its deeply sequestered vales, stupendous cataract, precipitous crags, and lofty summits. 
To the sublime heights of Han-tseuen, and to those awful precipices, that rise with mural 
perpendicularity above the plain, the city of Soo-chou owes all the healthful shelter it 
enjoys from the keen easterly winds. Like a rampart raised to screen the inhabitants, 
this noble range of hills is drawn around them so advantageously, that it is styled " the 
bulwark of the province." 

Ti-fa, prince royal, and afterwards emperor of China, once visited the Han-tseuen, 
or " cold spring," either from motives of curiosity, or in pursuit of game. A young 
lady of high rank, attended by her maids, had proceeded thither a short time before, for 
the purpose of bathing in its frigid waters ; but, perceiving a party of horsemen approach 
they retired with precipitation from their gaze. Not near enough to distinguish the 
real characters of these naiads, the royal cortege at first thought lightly of the circum-, 
stance ; but, as they advanced to the spring, were surprised at seeing an eagle rise sud- 
denly from the spot where the bathers had dressed themselves, carrying away some burden 
in its beak. Curiosity was now excited as to what the majestic bird had borne aloft, — 
what part of their property the mountain-nymphs, in their haste, had forgotten ; and 
conjecture was busy as to who the graceful group could possibly have been. Arrived on 








^ ^^^ 


■ I 



the spot, the prince's attention was quickly attracted by a shoe, so small, as to be but 
barely visible — so costly, that he had never before seen one equal to it. Treasuring the 
prize, which he did not hesitate to conclude that destiny had thrown in his path, he now 
only thought of discovering the miniature foot to which it once belonged. Scarcely had 
he reached his palace, and seated himself on the throne, with his courtiers around him, 
when the eagle flew into the veranda, and, making directly to the prince, dropped the 
fellow-shoe into his lap, and escaped again safely to it's regions of liberty. No doubt 
could any longer exist as to the interposition of fate in the transaction. The finding of 
the first shoe was not extraordinary, farther than its beauty and value ; but the part the 
eagle had enacted in the plot was evidently supernatural. It was decreed, therefore, that 
proclamation should be made throughout the empire, for the owner of the shoes ; and 
her attendance at court, commanded, under pain of death. As no one dared afford her 
an asylum, the lady Candida, the most beautiful woman, and richest heiress in China, 
obeyed the royal mandate ; and, entering the audience-chamber, then lighted up in all 
its lustre, the radiance of her loveliness was still so overpowering, that the prince 
declared her to be his well-beloved wife in the presence of the assembled court. In this 
ancient legend the well-known fairy tale of Cinderella may be traced; but there is 
another fact connected with it, still more remarkable, it's establishing an analogy 
between the customs and manners of two ancient nations, for, the Candida of Chinese 
story, is evidently the Rhodope of Egyptian. 



They gripe their oars, and ev'ry panting breast 

Is raised by turns with hope, by turns with fear depress'd. 


It is not a little remarkable that the very form which the enemy of mankind is repre- 
sented, in the sacred writings, as having assumed, to effect the fall of our first parents, should 
be held in the highest veneration by the Chinese. Such a devotion cannot arise from 
either reason or revelation, for its victims do not possess the one, and do not sufficiently 
exercise the other; yet, let not Christians be so uncharitable as to say, that the roaring 
lion, who goeth about seeking whom he may devour, still holds dominion over Chinamen. 
An old and learned author writes, "In China there is nothing so familiar as apparitions, 
inspirations, oracles, false prodigies, counterfeit miracles, whence follow storms, tempests, 
plagues, wars, and seditions, driving them to despair ; terrors of mind, intolerable pains :" 
again, — "by promises, rewards, benefits, and fair means, he (Satan) creates such an 
opinion of his deity and greatness, that they dare not do otherwise than adore him, they 




dare not oifend him."* That tlie grossest idolatry and most slavish superstition 
predominate in China, is undeniable ; the effect is obvious, although the cause may be 
somewhat latent. 

The destinies of the empire are said to be under the tutelage of four supernatural 
animals — the stag, tortoise, phoenix, and dragon. The first presides over literature, and 
is visible at the birth of sages ; the second over virtue, and appears at periods of wide- 
spread morality, or perhaps on occasions of general peace, when Janus closed the gates 
of his temple at Rome ; the third controlled divination ; and the dragon represented 
authority. This last extraordinary monster is the national ensign of China; it is painted 
on their standards, attached to precepts, edicts, documents, books, and all imperial 
instruments or insignia. Besides his possession of authority, the dragon influences the 
seasons, and exerts a decided mastery over the heavenly bodies. Eclipses have 
always hitherto yielded to his ravenous propensit)', which leads him occasionally to 
swallow the sun and moon, leaving the empire in total darkness. To appease his wrath, 
to divert his attention from these serious pursuits, the festival of the Dragon Boat is 
instituted, and held on the fifth day of the fifth moon, which generally falls in June. 

A boat of trifling width, but long enough to accommodate from forty to sixty paddles, 
is built for the occasion, having a figure-head representing the Chinese imperial emblem. 
As it cuts through the water with a rapidity which so great an impulse necessarily com- 
municates, the shouts of spectators, sounds of wind-instruments, and rolling of drums, 
lend increased vigour to the boatmen, whose sacred vessel not unfrequently comes into 
collision with lesser bodies, over which it passes almost imperceptibly, to all but the 
sufferers. A monster drum, with a well-stretched ox-hide for its head, placed amidships, 
is beaten heroically by three stout players ; these strike simultaneously ; whilst a profes- 
sional clown, at their side, continues, with increasing activity, to make grimaces, rise on 
his toes, sink on his haunches, sneer, snarl, look up towards the sky, and wind his arms 
about, to the cadences of the great drum. On the little deck at the boat's head, two 
men are stationed, armed with long sharp-pointed halberts; and their peculiar duty is to 
shout, and brandish their weapons in the most menacing manner. The Dragon, although 
fervently adored as being capable of good, is also servilely feared as the author of evil, 
and it is for this purpose that he is believed to conceal himself at certain periods in the little 
creeks, and under the shelving banks of the river. Although Mother-Carey's chickens 
present a more serious apprehension of danger to the mariner than the hiding dragon, 
the Chinese sailor lives in constant fear of being overturned by the malice of the latter, 
who darts out suddenly from his ambush upon the unsuspecting victim. The incon- 
sistency of superstition is strongly marked in this national festival ; for, the very deity 
to whom they ascribe the possession of authority at all other times, in the month of June 
they undertake to put down, or frighten away. Who could imagine any system of 
idolatry so infatuated as to prompt the inscription of "The flying dragon is in heaven," 
in letters of gold on the chief national emblem of a people, and the next moment to 
advise the pursuit of the same imaginary being amongst the laden boats that loiter 
in the Canton river ? * Riccius, lib. i. cap. x. 




i: ,1 

"^ ^ 









' A city pleases me : I have intense 
Delight in human effort, and my soul 
Becomes as 'twere a portion of the whole, 
In all its beauty and magnificence." 

Maky Howitt. 

Captain Stoddart's accurate view of the site and scenery of this celebrated entrepot, 
is a panorama of exquisite loveliness. Employing the ancient burial-ground as an 
observatory, the eye ranges over the low-lying city with its embattled walls ; the wide- 
spread suburbs, with their countless cottages ; beyond these, again, to the land-locked 
cove, dotted with busy merchant-men, there riding securely from every breath of wind. 
Above the waters of the inner bay, which closely resembles an inland lake, rises a 
noble chain of mountains, dentated in outline, and granitic in structure. Ko-long-soo, 
interposed between the outward ocean and this picturesque basin, acts as a natural and 
most efficient breakwater, imparting such entire and constant placidity to its surface, 
that vessels may lie here at all seasons regardless of the weather, biding their time for 
unfurling the sails ; and transit from shore to shore by boats of tiny tonnage, is never 
attended with risk or interruption. 

When the habitual insolence, and practised duplicity of the Cantonese, — their 
increased resentment towards the English, arising from recent military humiliation, and 
the destruction of their mercantile monopoly, — are considered, it seems reasonable to 
conclude, that the island and city of Amoy will succeed to a large share of that trade, 
which is hourly passing away from Canton for ever. The navigation of the Canton 
river is tedious, and often insecure, — the entrance to the cove of Amoy is short, deep, 
and unimpeded. Egress is equally inconvenient from the former city, while vessels may 
wait in the inner harbour of Amoy, under island-shelter, for favourable weather, and sail 
almost the moment of its return. Besides these natural advantages, all which have 
more than once been dwelt on in these brief notices of the great empire of the Chinese, 
our embassies and expeditions have uniformly found a kindlier spirit, a more generous 
feeling, predominant at Amoy, towards foreigners, and traders, and visitors, than at other 
ports of China ; and it is sufficiently shown by our missionaries and travellers, that the 
citizens of this populous place would long since have saluted the British flag, floating on 
the tranquil bosom of their sun-lit bay, if imperial menaces had not deterred them 
from every act of hospitality to the stranger. 

Being nearer to Canton than the other open-ports of the empire, Amoy will probably 
be sooner, as well as more securely, enriched, by the abolition of commercial monopoly 
at that much-disliked emporium ; and,; from the very flattering accounts given by 


Gutzlaff, ISIedhurst, and other learned travellers, of the social character of its 
citizens, intercourse with foreigners at this city is likely to be more close, more con- 
stant, and more conciliatory, than has ever hitherto been permitted by this very jealous 
and primitive people.* 


" And God that all this world bath ywrought, 
Send him his Love that hath her so deere bought." 


Whenever Providence has distinguished the bride from the bridegroom by rank, wealth, 
or other adventitious circumstances, the marriage contract in China too nearly resembles 
a bargain for sale and purchase. It may unquestionably be retorted, that the practice 
of setting a price on female loveliness degrades the social customs of European life, and 
that both wives and husbands are occasionally purchased in the most civilized kingdoms 
of Europe ; yet, in all such cases, there is one redeeming virtue not found in Chinese 
ethics, namely, that the principal parties to the contract, the lovers themselves, have the 
privilege of a previous acquaintance. Should report celebrate the charms of a lady 
amongst the higher classes in the Celestial empire, purchasers soon appear, to solicit her 
hand;t and, so soon as the monetary arrangements are concluded, the suitor is permitted 
to send rich presents to his lady-love. In this act of courtesy, this subscription to custom, 
he is joined by his relatives and private friends, who vie with each other in making 
offerings, costly in proportion to the dower to be received with the bride, or paid to her 
parents. These gifts are to be carefully distinguished from the coarser specimens of 
art borne in the marriage-procession. They consist of trinkets and toilet-furniture, 
silks and silver-ware, and the manner of their presentation is peculiarly ceremonious. 
One of the chief apartments of the house is allotted to the reception of such tokens of 
respect ; there the female heralds are admitted, and acknowledged with some degree of 
solemnity, while around are seated in sorrow, either serious or assumed, the sisters and 
and near kindred of the bride. To the elder ladies of the family belongs the duty of 
laying out the gifts judiciously in the inner chamber; the bride meanwhile, in her 
broidered cap, occupying a conspicuous place, and expressing her thanks to the various 
messengers of kindness. 

The late professor Kidd observed a remarkable analogy between marriage ceremonies 
amongst the higlier orders in several Oriental kingdoms, but especially the Malays and 

See more full descriptions of the city and harbour of Amoy, in Vol. II., p. G9. Vol. III., p. 56. 
t Vide Vol. Ill, p. 59. 


^ ^ 















I . 

■ t^^i 




Chinese. " There were three days of feasting and preliminary amusements, during 
which the bride was visited by her friends, and adorned by her attendants with jewels, 
raiment, and perfumes, supposed most likely to render her acceptable to the bridegroom. 
On the evening of the third day from the commencement of these ceremonies, when 
the bride was shut up in her own apartment, with her female friends, the bridegroom 
came to the door, and demanded admission. A voice from within asked who was there ? 
and on what errand the visitor had come ? questions which the bridegroom answered by 
calling aloud his name, and demanding the young lady within to be given to him as his 
wife. In reply, he was desired to state what present he proposed to make, if the doors 
were opened ? A diamond of considerable value was promised. The door was imme- 
diately thrown open, and the husband, on presenting the precious gem, was admitted to 
the presence of his bride ; who accompanied him to the nuptial feast spread upon a mat 
on the floor, on which they both sat down to eat. It was at the feast, prepared in the 
evening, and consisting of all the delicacies afforded by the climate and the season, with 
a large bowl of rice in the centre, that the ratification of the marriage agreement took 
place, which in its essential points is the same as among the Chinese; and was in all 
probability the primitive custom of sanctioning marriage. It is impossible, in referring 
to those observances, not to be struck with the illustrations they afford of customs and 
expressions in the Sacred Scriptures, such as decking the bed of the bride of Solomon .. 
anointing the person of the bride with perfumes and myrrh, — the great gaiety and fes- 
tivities of the party, kept up for a considerable period, according to the rank of the 
individuals, and various other points of coincidence."* 



'Tis good to climb the mountain high 

And trace the valley deep, 
To gaze upon a brilliant sky 

Where clouds of silver sleep. 

Akgvro Castro. 

Few scenes in the whole empire of the Chinese, more fully illustrate the jealous policy 
of its government than the picturesque locality of the "Two Peaks." N(?t deeming this 
rocky barrier sufficient protection against the untamed animals, rational and irrational, of 
the desert, the Great Wall has been continued on the other side of the mountains of 
Chen-si, without suflBcient reflection, by its royal founder, upon the ridicule so super- 
fluous a defence might probably excite. Against all such apprehensions, however, the 

• Vide China, by Samuel Kidd, p. 325. 
IV. G 


legislators of China appear to have been completely proof — remaining eternally wrapped 
up in ideas of the antiquity, majesty, populousness, and power of their country. 
Nor is this more than useless wall, raised to defend the Too-hing, the only act of con- 
spicuous folly and bigoted policy which the vicinity discloses. Valuable mines of gold 
lie buried in the rocky treasury of these mountains, easily accessible to such skilful 
miners as the Chinese ; but they are prohibited from being worked, on pain of death. 
So resolute on this point is the imperial decision, that a guard of tiger-hearted Tartars 
is stationed at " Two Peaks," to prevent the least attempt at seeking for this source of 
human weal and woe. 

A high road, from the Orlous country to Sin-gan-foo, through the Too-hing 
mountains, was formed, it is said, some thousand years since, and by upwards of 
one hundred thousand labourers. High hills were levelled, deep valleys filled up, 
and bridges thrown across chasms, and ravines, and defiles, from mountain to mountain. 
In some places roads were conveyed on pillars, like our grand modern aqueducts of 
Europe, across low districts of miles in length ; in others, as at " Two Peaks," a passage 
was cut through the solid rock, and, with an expenditure of manual labour never known 
but in China, steps hewn in a lofty mountain from its base to its summit. At the com- 
mencement of this zig-zag avenue a guard is stationed, under the command of ofiicers 
having authority to exact toll from passengers and duty on merchandise. A station-house 
at the upper gate is of singular construction. The passage hewn in the rock being only wide 
enough to admit a sedan, with a foot-passage at a side doorwa}', — the guards are lodged in 
a series of apartments elevated on poles some twenty feet above the road. Besides 
transit duties, a very considerable amount of revenue is derived from the productions of 
the district itself. The climate is suited to the cultivation of rhubarb, honey, cinnabar, 
musk, wax, and odoriferous woods of the sandal kind. Although the inhabitants are not 
allowed to touch the gold, they raise coal in great quantities, besides several species of 
minerals employed by native physicians as remedies for fever, and as antidotes against 
poison. Stags, fallow-deer, wild oxen, and fierce animals of the feline species, range these 
rocky regions : their capture affbrding constant employment to the natives, and their 
skins constituting a source of wealth. In the low districts, where the river periodically 
inundates the land, wheat and millet are raised in abundance, but little or no rice. 

This perhaps is too commercial, too utilitarian a picture, of this remote but 
romantic localit)', nor is it in all respects a full and fair one ; for, in addition to the 
varied forms of the Too-hing summits, the luxuriant vegetation of intermediate 
valleys, and salubrious quality of the climate, no province of China is more richly 
adorned with instructive examples of natural history. This is the country of that beau- 
tiful spotted animal resembling the leopard, for which a name is yet wanting in English ; 
of the Chinese chamois, from which musk is obtained ; of The Golden Hen, the pride of 
the feathered tribe, in Asia ; and, here also, amidst a myriad of blushing companions. 
The Queen af Flowers has established her superiority. Moi'e delicately coloured 
than the rose, its leaves are larger, its perfume sweeter, and its blossoms endure much 








TI\G-HAI. 27 


Go, standard of England, go forth to the battle, 

Go, meet the proud foes in their hostile array ; 
The heat of the action where loud cannons rattle, 

Is where I have borne thee through many a day. 

The Soldiefs Fareivell to his Flag. 

Nowhere, during the British descent upon the coast of China, was the destruction of 
life and property greater than at Ting-hai. Situated in the entrance to the bay of 
Hang-tchow-foo, Chusan might operate as a breakwater against the ocean's waves, a 
fortress against foreign wars ; but in the latter capacity it proved lamentably deficient. 
In the preceding pages of these descriptions, the fall of Ting-hai is recorded, almost 
in the language of an eye-witness ; and, in subsequent passages, the site and scenery 
of the locality dwelt on with some degree of minuteness. It is remarkable that those 
places which the Chinese government believed to be impregnable, yielded readily 
to British arms, while positions of less reputation afforded more obstinate resistance. 
Every hill on the coast in the vicinity of Ting-hai, is crowned with a battery of apparent 
strength ; some too elevated to be effective, others too much exposed to the fire of an 
enemy. At the entrance of a defile, watered by a rivulet flowing from the valley of 
Chae-hu, and on an eminence about two hundred feet above the level of the bay, stands 
one of those deceptive structures, misnamed "The Fortress of Terror," in which the 
Chinese so lucklessly reposed entire confidence, when the British fleet cast anchor in the 
roads beneath. 

No troops, however armed or disciplined, could have acted with more eminent 
personal gallantry, than the Tartar garrison of the fort of Terror, yet none ever encoun- 
tered a more signal overthrow. Two circumstances contributed to produce this result, 
one, the scientific principles, perfect discipline, and national courage of the British ; the 
other, ignorance on the part of the Chinese, of all modei-n improvements in the destructive 
art of war. Hereafter these hill-forts may be strengthened, and rendered serviceable ; 
yet even this hope would appear to be extinguished by the extensive application of 
steam in the British navy. 

In one of the picturesque and rocky glens of Chusan, and immediately behind the 
city of Ting-hai, where several spacious villas are erected, stands a grotesque-looking Hall 
of Ancestors, — octagonal in form, and covered with a lotus-shaped roof, having dragoned 
finials; it is open beneath, and, from its pleasant position on an elevated rock overhanging 
the glen, and commanding a prospect of the fortress in front, and of the sea at its base, 
is a constant scene of visitation. In Chusan, generally, there are many indications of a 
very ancient occupation, perhaps none more obvious and useful than the old paved roads 

* r7* Vol. I. p. 01. Vol. II. p. 43, & 5-2. Vol. Ill p. .W. 


leading up every glen, and often climbing to the summits of the hills; the best examples 
of these may be seen in Anstruther's Valley, and at Pih-chuau. One well known paved-way, 
crossing an artificial river by a wooden bridge, ascends the ridge of rock on which the 
open temple rests, and, descending on the other side, passes the lower walls of the fort, 
and continues to Ting-hai. Although a mandarin of some consequence, as his retinue 
implies, is seen approaching the temple in his sedan of ceremony, the roads of Chusan 
were not constructed for the convenience of visitors, the gratification of travellers, or the 
mere objects of pleasure. Every hill is cultivated to its summit, every valley, from the 
mountain's foot to the river's margin ; and, as industry and fertility are here happily con- 
comitant, a large surplus arises for the enrichment of the labourers. These productions, 
including rice, cotton, sweet potatoes, coarse tea, and candles made from the seeds of the 
tallow-tree, are conveyed along the canals in barges, and afterwards carried to the sea-ports 
by the usual mode of transport in China, the bamboo-pole laid across the shoulders, with 
buckets, or baskets, or boxes suspended from its extremities. In the agreeable scene, 
with which the faithful pencil of Captain Stoddart has made the western world familiar, 
little boats are just arriving at a convenient place for landing or receiving burdens ; and, 
beyond the pool, a picture still more animated presents itself, in the bustle of the 
boatmen and porters belonging to a large farm-house, the paddy grounds of which are 
supposed to lie behind. This pleasing spectacle is singularly characteristic of Chusan 
landscapes; everywhere in this cheerful island, hills and valleys, woods and rivers, 
luxuriance and sterility, are seen in contrast ; and, the precise beau-ideal of romantic 
beauty amongst Chinamen, — the end, so eternally pursued in their landscape-gardening, 
namely, the introduction of rocky-groups, and forest-trees, and running waters, amidst 
the highest state of refinement and cultivation, is effected in Chusan, by a generous 
co-operation of nature. 



No regal state with eating cares intrude 

To break the stillness of his solitude ; 

No wealth allures, with all its glittering store ; 

But peace, contentment, wait the bonze's door. H. 

Poo-Too, or Worshippers' Island, in Chusan archipelago, is the chief seat of Chinese 
Buddhism, and has long been celebrated for the riches, and magnitude, and glories 
of its temples. Although the whole area of this sacred spot does not exceed twelve 
square miles, nor its original population two thousand souls, yet here now upwards of 
3,000 monks, or bonzes, of the Hoshang or unmarried sect, reside, and lead a Pytha- 









1 i 



gorean life. Three hundred isles and upwards, constitute the Chusan group, many of 
which are larger and more fertile than Poo-too,* but none comparable to it for inequality 
of surface, variety of scenery, and boldness of outline when seen from a distance, — shelter 
and repose when closely visited. For the latter reasons, doubtless, these ascetics 
selected the deep glens of Poo-too for their temples, and for their tombs. Upwards of 
four hundred minor chapels have been erected on this little isle, but there is one building 
which is considered the very cathedral of Buddhism. In a fertile and narrow valley, over- 
hung by granitic summits that reach, in some places, to a height of one thousand feet, and 
traversed by a rivulet of clear, sweet water, stands The Grand Temple. Between two tall 
flagstaffs, planted securely in the natural rock, a flight of steps ascends to the simple gate- 
way leading to the court ; monastic dwellings, of two stories in height, substantially built, 
and surmounted by hideous dragons, are grouped closely together ; and behind them 
rises the many-storied pagoda, that marks the site of the temple of worship. It is more 
than probable, from the solitude and study to which the bonzes of Poo-too dedicate 
themselves, that they are acquainted with the labours of the Catholic missionaries who 
once visited their country, and who were so favourably received by Kang-he. It is also 
perfectly certain that they are familiar with the mode of worship observed by the Portu- 
guese at Macao, because crucifixes and images of our Saviour, and of the Virgin Mary, 
mixed with articles of a general character, are publicly offered for sale in the shops of 
Ting-hai. These notorious facts will therefore explain the anomalous appearance of a 
large and well-carved cross, conspicuously placed on a sculptured and solid pedestal, 
being found amongst the external architectural decorations of a Buddhist temple. 

Although Buddhism is a religion confined to its officiating priests, the public feel 
an interest in its preservation, as communicating to social life a moral impulse. 
They contribute, therefore, alms to the priests, and donations to the pagodas. When 
Nanking was restored, after its devastation by the Tartars, the green and yellow tiles of 
the imperial palace, in that city, were presented to the bonzes of Poo-too ; and, being placed 
on the great temple, they now reflect the bright rays of a mid-day sun, with a brilliancy 
that is observable many miles from the Island. Quan-gin is the most revered idol in the 
grand pagoda, but Teen-how, or the Queen of Heaven, is enthroned in the smaller ones. 
In all of them are colossal images of Buddha, either in a standing or sitting posture, and, 
in some instances, surrounded by upwards of fifty of his disciples, fashioned from clay or 
plaster. In the chief saloon of the great temple, a large and beautiful bell, sculptured 
with inscriptions, and scalloped at the mouth, is preserved ; and, beside it, rests a drum, 
the head of which is about eight feet in diameter, covered with ox-hide. 

• Trading-juiiks uniformly call here on their outward passage, and the crews get their fortunes told. For a 
small sum they obtain an amulet, or charm, which is deemed a certain preventive to shipwreck, and a secure 
guarantee of a prosperous voyage. 




Have not those ancient arches stood, 
Time out of mind, the angry flood ? 
What busy crowds have paced their length. 
Safe in their firm and long-tried strength. 

Ghost of London Bridye. 

It has been previously stated in the pages of these volumes, that Nanking is not seated 
immediately on the banks of the Yangste-keang, but at the distance of three miles 
from them, and connected with that noble river by a wide and deep canal ; so consider- 
able indeed is this artificial navigation, which continues parallel to the west and south 
walls of the city, at a trifling interval only, that the bridges thrown across it are works of 
much architectual pretensions. Near to the foot of the Porcelain Tower, the largest 
and most principal bridge of Nanking spans the main trunk of the canal, forming a 
communication between an extensive suburb, and the west gate of the city. It con- 
sists of six well-turned arches of unequal width, and is altogether a scientific work, 
being kept down nearly to a level with the banks at either extremity. 

Chinese bridges are constructed on different principles, in different parts of the 
empire ; so much indeed does diversity prevail, that is, science in one place, ignorance 
in another, that neither censure nor applause can be bestowed upon the architects of the 
empire generally in this particular respect. Arches, pointed like the Early English, may 
be found in one locality ; the horse-shoe, or Moorish form, abounds in another : orna- 
mental bridges, in gardens and pleasure-grounds, consist mostly of one opening, either 
arched or flat ; some of those built over navigable rivers have piers so lofty, that junks 
of two hundred tons burden can sail under them without striking their masts ; one arch, 
and of large dimensions, is of frequent occurrence ; so also are bridges of a number of 
arches, and that near Sou-tchoo-foo consists of no fewer than ninety-one. 

That beauty and strength are not inseparable in works of art, is at least fully illus- 
trated in the structure of the graceful one-arch bridge of China. Each stone is cut 
so as to form the segment of a circle, and, as there is no keystone, ribs of wood, fitted 
to the convexity of the arch, are bolted through the stones by iron bars, fastened securely 
into the dead-work of the bridge. Sometimes wood is dispensed with, in which case the 
curved stones are mortised into long transverse blocks of the same material. In some parts 
of the empire, on the other hand, arches of smaller stones, and pointed to a centre, as in 
Europe, are everywhere seen. The arches of the towers on the Great Wall, are all exactly 
turned, and the masonry of that miracle of labour is referred to by those who have 
examined it, as a perfect model of enduring industry. 

From what has here been stated, it would appear, that not only are the Chinese in 
perfect possession of the true scientific principles of arching in masonry, but still fur- 








ther, that they acquired that knowledge before any other known nation. Arches cut 
in the solid mountain occur in Hindoo excavated temples, but, when independent stones 
are employed, and the building was to be superstructed on columns, then the stones 
above the capitals were overlaid, like inverted steps, till they met in the central point 
above and between the two columns, resembling, at a little distance, a Gothic arch. Neither 
the Persians nor the Egyptians appear to have been acquainted with the circular arch, 
for, no such form occurs in the ruins of Persepolis, Balbec, Palmyra, or Thebes, nor does 
it seem to have been much used in the magnificent buildings of the Romans, antece- 
dently to the time of Augustus. Those that are now disclosed in the disinterred frag- 
ments of Pompeii, are on a diminutive scale, seldom employed to sustain a heavy weight, 
but principally to decorate and relieve the monotony of a continuous surface. If 
Chinese annals deserve any credit, the arches in the towers of the Great Wall were 
constructed before the western nations of the world were acquainted with the invention. 
But, independently of their own testimony, circumstantial evidence favours the decision, 
that, with them, this discovery of so much beauty and utility, first originated. 

The Bridge of Nanking is built entirely of red granite, with circular arches turned 
with cuneiformed stones, and resting on piers of solid masonry. That its projectors 
were little apprehensive for its stability, is shown by the erection on each side of the cause- 
way, of a vow of substantial dwellings, one story in height. These do not prove as 
injurious as droves of cattle, coaches driven at a rapid pace, or armies marching with 
regulated step, the most severe test of a swinging bridge, but they do, to a certain 
extent, establish the sustaining abiUty of the structure. On one side of Nanking great 
bridge is shown the city wall, on the other the Porcelain Tower ; while the state-junk, 
conveying an imperial commissioner, who had just arrived to treat with the English, 
has reached its berth at the principal landing-place. 


Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid 
Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire. 
Hands that the rod of empire might have sway'd, 
Or waked to ecstasy the living lyre. 

Gray's Elegy. 

Every addition made to our knowledge of Chinese history and habits, contributes to 
render the analogy with other Oriental countries closer, by which their vain notions, of a 
separate origin from the rest of mankind, meets with circumstantial contradiction. Cere- 
monies in honour of the dead, form no minor criterion of previous identity, and, when- 
ever we find two nations, or people, observing rites nearly similar, and those of a very 
complicated character, it may, with great probability, be concluded, that they are derived 


from a common origin. All the forms of a Chinese marriage are discoverable in some 
country or other of the Eastern hemisphere, their affectation of peculiarities being an 
insufficient disguise. So also, in the burial of the dead, a striking similarity to the practices 
of countries described in Scripture, has been ascertained, by modern travellers, to prevail 
in China. Exploring parties of British officers, actuated by no other motives than those of 
curiosity, amusement, or instruction, set out from Amoy, and, ascending the granite hills 
that shelter and adorn the vicinity, were astonished by the discovery of an ancient 
cemetery. It occupied a hollow or excavation in the mountain, such as would have 
been left by an extensively wrought quarry, and, from its weather-worn appearance, 
was evidently of most ancient construction. A crescented tomb of triple walls, dedi- 
cated to a mandarin of high rank, stood in front of the enclosure, behind which rose a long 
flight of steps cut in the rock, leading up to a gateway of grotesque design, consisting of 
a double ogee-roof, sustained by four wooden columns. The inner space had evidentl}', 
in former ages, been excavated, the stone carried away, and the regular area left by its 
removal, formed into galleries and promenades, rising in tiers one above the other. In some 
instances, vast spaces were enclosed by walls of solid masonry, within which were temples, 
or tombs, hollowed from the rock, and filled with remains of the dead. In other 
directions, several hundred vaults stood, with opened doors, upon a gallery of considerable 
length. In some cells, urns, in others coffins, were found, while many had become 
altogether deserted and tenantless. Here, however, incontrovertible evidence is offered, 
that the Chinese anciently — for these sepulchres are, by themselves, considei-ed to rank 
amongst their earliest records of civilization — entombed their dead in catacombs, like many 
other Oriental nations. The Egyptians constructed pyramids and labyrinths, to contain 
the remains of mortality. The Phcsnicians and Greeks hollowed out rocks for tombs, 
surrounding their chief cities with depositories of the bones of their fathers. Beneath 
Rome, Naples, and Paris, are extensive catacombs ; and gigantic constructions of similar 
description, but far more early dates, exist on the African shores of the Mediterranean. 
The doors, or the panels cut in the rock on each side of them, in these catacombs of Amoy, 
are carved with appropriate inscriptions, and with effigies of wives, or attendants, or slaves, 
or horses, or other objects that contributed to the honour or happiness of the deceased. 
This custom is precisely co-incident with that of the most ancient Egyptians. There 
the catacombs give us an idea of those whose existence is still unknown to us. They con- 
tain the history of the country ; and the customs and manners of the people, painted or 
sculptured in many monuments, are in the most admirable preservation. 

It was customary in China to bury slaves, and even queens, alive, with the remains of 
emperors and princes; but, the Tartars substituted the less cruel and sinful system of 
burning representations of all imperial attaches in tinfoil, and of placing little wooden 
images of them also upon the graves of their royal masters. This very custom, Herodotus 
alludes to in speaking of the Scythians : he says, that at the funerals of their chiefs, wives, 
servants, and horses were all impaled alive, and placed around the tyrant's tomb. In 
Egypt, the hieroglyphics on the walls of the mausoleum express the extent of the deceased 
prince's authority, the number of his slaves, and of his subjects; — at Amoy, the devices 



I 1 









on the rocks are intended to express similar objects. These tombs, therefore, only made 
known to Europeans since the return of our victorious expedition from China in the 
year 1844, aiFord a convincing proof that the primaeval habits of the Chinese did not differ 
from those of the earliest people spoken of in the Scriptures, for they also placed their 
dead in grottos. Abraham was laid at rest in the cave of Machpelah. 

It may give confirmation to the conclusion here attempted to be drawn, to quote this 
well-known passage in the sixth ^Eneid of Virgil. 

Those pleasing cares the heroes felt, alive, 
For chariots, steeds, and arras in death survive, 

as evidence that the Romans were familiar with that kind of sepulchral sculpture, which 
perpetuated the dignity of the deceased hero : and a passage in the Electra of Euripides, 

Thou Queen Earlh, to whom I stretch my hands, 

demonstrates an analogy between the funeral rites of the Chinese and the Greeks, all 
tombs in the kingdom of Cathay being, to the present day, consecrated most especially 
to How-too, or, " queen earth." 



Here on a clear and crystal lied, 

A sparkling radiance round thee shed. 

Thou view'st the forms and shapes that rise, — 

Spires — villages — delight thine eyes. H. 

Animation increases as the city of Canton is approached, not solely from the cultivated 
character of the enclosing banks, the constant passing of vessels engaged in foreign 
trade, but more particularly from the vast amount of population permanently located on 
the watery surface. Pilot-houses, stores, merchants' villas, and groups of humble 
dwelUngs, overshadowed by waving pines, lend an air of cheerfulness to the ever-varying 
view ; and, the style of architecture, combined with the seasonable decorations of the 
houses, add much agreeable effect to the moving picture. One locality is peculiarly 
gratifying from the liveliness of the scene, and assemblage of pleasing objects and cir- 
cumstances. A row of picturesque cottages, on one bank, is approached from the water 
by a broad flight of steps, shaded in hot weather by the outspread branches of a lofty 
forest-tree ; on the opposite bank stands a temple of Fo, and a tall pagoda encircled by 
ramparts, where the Chinese sustained, for some twenty minutes, an attack from a small 
British force in the recent war with the empire. It is at this place, called the Yellow 
Pagoda, that so many junks stop, and their crews, disembarking, make offerings to the 
tutelar deity of the islet for their safe return, or conciliate his favour for a prosperous 

IV. I 


voyage. From this venerated spot to the city-quays activity and, indeed, confusion, appear 
to increase with an accelerated speed, so that when once the noble panorama of the Yellow 
Pagoda, the majestic stream of the Cho-keang, and the distant amphitheatre of hills are 
passed, Honan and the sounds of the city-streets are soon encountered. This is the prin- 
cipal suburb allotted to foreigners for their residence, but the privilege is accompanied 
by so many infringements, that the value of the gift is much less than the giver could ever 
have contemplated. Every promenade is previously occupied by the most idle and ill- 
conducted of the native population, intermixed with a countless crowd of beggars. 
These troublesome characters hitherto, that is, previously to the Chinese war, with 
unblushing effrontery gathered around each foreigner, either to satiate vulgar curiosity, 
or extort, by pressing importunity, undue alms. 

Beyond, or rather through, a dense forests of masts, a view is obtained, from this 
suburb, of the European pavilion at Canton, and of the factories of foreigners, but, 
approach thither appears to be impracticable, if not impossible. Barges, barques, boats, 
junks, and larger vessels lie side by side in one continuous arrangement on the surface, 
so that no avenue remains for a new arrival. The custom-house, therefore, cannot be 
reached without the aid of a constabulary force. Even with these auxiliaries the 
achievement is one of considerable difficulty— one in which torrents of abusive language 
are sure to flow, repeated blows constantly interchanged, and personal injury not im- 
frequently inflicted. Some abatement from the uniform violence of these scenes has 
taken place since the opening of Ning-po, and of other ports, the establishment of 
more free traflSc at Macao, and the settlement of Hong-kong by the English; yet still 
the Cantonese retain an extensive foreign trade ; the population of their city is con- 
siderable ; and they are not without the hope, that the reign of bigotry may again return, 
and restore to them their much abused monopoly of European and Indian commerce. 



And here the wide earth's treasure 
Shall merchants bring — spices, and gems, and gold ; 
All precious wares for pride, and pomp, and pleasure, 

Shall here be bought and sold. 

Mary Howitt. 

Not far from the celebrated temple is the embouchure of the Honan Canal, a principal 
highway of traffic, and an avenue to scenes of beauty, industry, and cultivation. Villas 
erected at immense cost line the banks in many places, their balconies being decked with 
fragrant flowers, adorned with fantastic lanterns, and distinguished by various other pro- 
ductions of an ancient refinement. Like the palaces of Venice, each villa has a separate 





I 1 




cove, or fairy port, where the barge of its wealthy owner lies moored, until the sounds of 
pleasure once more call it into service. In some places the store, or factory, of a mer- 
chant stands on the margin of the water, a broad ladder descending from the lowest 
verandah, for the convenient delivery or reception of merchandise ; while tablets hanging 
from the pillars indicate the name, and quality, and particular business of the proprietor. 
Those who have made a tour of the Venetian lagunes, are prepared to appreciate the 
pleasant character of such watery ways, where familiarity soon obliterates the idea of 
danger, and novelty insensibly adds zest to enjoyment. Immediately above the locality 
represented in Mr. AUom's view, is a bridge of unequalled grandeur — the proud archi- 
tectural boast of the Cantonese. Here the Fan-kwei has always been allowed the 
privilege of mixing with the subjects of the celestial empire: gazing on their singular 
costume, their splendid parasols, and their inexpressive countenances, while he is him- 
self, in turn, the object of an unenviable examination. On this grand rialto, fortune- 
tellers and begging bonzes make their stations. The former either move amongst the 
passing crowd, or seat themselves at a table, on which writing materials are laid, and, 
for a few cash, unfold the mysteries of time to come. Husbands who have forfeited 
their wives' affections, lovers who would ensure the regard of their Dulcineas, mothers 
who burn with solicitude for their children's happiness, and children who have been dis- 
carded by their parents, these, and other varieties of suitors, are seen around the magi- 
cian's table, awaiting, in breathless eagerness, his sentence, or their turn for consultation. 

Above and below this favourite promenade the scenery of the canal is remarkably 
picturesque. The character of the architecture, the species of foliage, and the sleepy 
surface of the liquid way itself, are similar all along for many a mile, but nowhere so 
strikingly beautiful and agreeable as in the immediate vicinity of Ta-jin's pavilion. The 
principal front is sustained and decorated by colonnades so light, and delicate, that 
a breath would appear sufficient to blow them awa}', yet so solid and secure, being 
formed of bamboo, that they are competent to resist the rudest visitations of weather. 
Colours the most bright, smiling, and gaudy enliven the upper stories, from the gilded 
lattices of which the females observe all passengers, without being themselves dis- 
covered by the objects of their curiosity. 

As your boat is pulled leisurely along, you may peep into the interior, and witness 
the glowing reign of luxury. There a multitude of sparkling lustres, twinkling lamps, 
and glaring lanterns depend from the ceiling, while everything that can minister to 
social enjoyment is spread around these grand saloons. Let the eye but turn to the 
opposite shore, and dwell upon the contrast in place and circumstances : there riches 
are succeeded by poverty — leisure by industry — perhaps also affectation by real happi- 
ness. Fronting the villa of the prince-mei'chant of Honan, is the poor-man's hut, built 
on piles that out-top the water; and beside it is a narrow space, overshadowed by the 
branches of a full-grown tree, where all his commercial negociations are conducted. 
Here the poor but civilized Chinaman, with a species of practical philosophy, peculiar 
to countries where the necessaries of life are few in number and easily obtained, leads 
a kind of nomade existence. His embowered wharf is equally adapted to the trans- 


actions of trade and the pleadings of pleasure ; and thus he whiles away one day after 
another, regardless of what the following may require. 

But the Chinese, or rather Cantonese, population do not restrict their residences to 
land, nor to houses resting on piles near the shore ; multitudes have their homes upon 
the deep, for they actually dwell in barges moored in the river, and never abandon that 
amphibious locality for the safer land. In some parts of the river the number of fixed 
barges is so great, as to conceal the greater portion of the channel's breadth, and present 
a solid jumbled mass. In others they are arranged with their sides contiguous, and 
extending from shore to shore, with the exception of a narrow passage for the shipping. 
Groups are often detached from the land and moored in tiers, admitting of communica- 
tion amongst themselves, but preventing intercourse with the shore. This aquatic race of 
human beings is viewed by their brethren of the terra firma with suspicion and unkind- 
ness. They are believed to have had a separate origin — considered as aliens of 
contemptible talents, and prohibited from intermarrying with lands-people. Tradition, 
most foolish tradition, ascribes their origin to the wide-spread space beyond the 
embouchure of the Choo-keang, an idea as childish as the fable of mermen, or sons of 
the sea. It is to the grandfather of Teaou-kwang that the water-population of China 
are indebted, not only for being admitted to citizenship, but even for permission to 
set foot on the soil of the celestial empire. 



Whatever heavens, sea and land begat. 

Hills, seas, and rivers, God was this and that. Jeb, 

The fall of Chapoo and death of Colonel Tomlinson have been described in the preced- 
ing pages of this volume ; * the accompanying view, taken almost immediately after the 
sanguinary conflict which it so spiritedly represents, places before the reader the local 
characters of the scene on which it occurred. 

In other countries, as well as in China, temples of religious worship have been con- 
verted into places of temporary defence, in time of war, and garrisoned by gallant com- 
panies that have done honour to their country. Instances are so numerous, that no 
student of history can be unacquainted with some of them. The positions of churches, 
either on a conspicuous eminence, or in a sheltered glen — either in the very centre of 
the village, or commanding its entrance — having a tower well suited for a military 
post, from which musketry can act, with dreadful effect, upon an assailing part}-, 
render their occupancy always a point of importance. And it may accordingly be 

» Vide p. 49, &c. 








observed, that the most fatal encounters, in every aggressive war, have arisen from 
a struggle for their possession. The death of Colonel Tomlinson was attended with 
circumstances of greater gallantry than any other event in the Chinese war ; and the 
obstinate defence of the Joss-house at Chapoo may be appealed to by the Tartars, as an 
evidence of their personal bravery. 

Like the religions of the Chinese, their places of worship are also various : temples, 
on an extensive scale, capacious and lofty ; but joss-houses, of minor proportions : 
the former often adorned with pagodas — the latter seldom ; but, both possessing accom- 
modation for resident bonzes, and altars for consultation, to which votaries bring joss- 
sticks, and perfumes, and tin-foil, and other ingredients requisite for the performance of 
ceremonies calculated to propitiate the tutelar deities. How these inferior gods became 
entitled to this worship is probably little understood by the frequenters of their temples, 
especially since the number is considerable, and the idea attached to the divinity of many 
somewhat complex. Besides Halls of Confucius, Joss-Houses, or Halls of Ancestors, 
Temples to Buddha and Taou-tze, there are 3Iiaos to the Mother of Heaven, the God 
of Fire, the Devil Star, the Four Chaste Ladies, the Dragon King, Literature, the 
Winds, Longevity — deities who attend travellers, and conduct them home in safety; 
and others, of whose offices the description would be still more tedious. To all these 
objects of worship, joss-houses appear to be consecrated; and to some of them, (the 
dii mujores, probably,) greater buildings. Notwithstanding the obvious folly of the 
Chinese modes of worship, there is one principle connected with them that is exemplary 
— toleration. Nor is the objection of much weight which ascribes that quality to indif- 
ference rather than liberality, for, the Chinese may employ the arguments of Symmachus, 
a bitter enemy of Christianity, who yet maintained the free exercise of conscience in 
matters of religion. " Because God is immense and infinite," says this epistolary 
author, " and his nature cannot be perfectly known, it is convenient he should be as 
diversely worshipped as every man shall perceive or understand " — a deplorable theory, 
yet the otfspring of reason. The same writer recommends, " that every province should 
retain its own institutions, revelations, orders, oracles, which the genii of the place may, 
from time to time, have dictated to their priests or ministers." There cannot be a more 
accurate account of the plurality of religions that prevail in China, nor of the grounds 
on which toleration is permitted in that empire. 

]V. K 



Now came that awful conflict big with fate : 
The band, in order, in their barges sate ; 
By sounding oars, and sinewy arms impelled 
Their course, to reach that field of war they held. 

Argon. Exped. 

Where the Imperial Canal enters the Yang-tse-kiang river on the south, and where 
a broad and beautiful nautical basin is formed by the river's sinuosities and expansions, 
a vast trade has been contracted, and large cities have grown up. In the centre of 
the river, at its widest part, stands the Golden Island, clothed to its tapering summit 
with the most luxuriant foliage ; on the northern shore is seated the city of Quang- 
tchou, and, on the southern Chlng-keang-foo. Ridge after ridge of rocky mountains 
stretches away from the borders of the bay into the remotest distance, producing a remark- 
able contrast of imagined retirement and sterility, with the smiling and animated picture 
which the river, here a league in breadth, presents to the eye. The surface is varied 
by the presence of vessels, differing in size, shape, and objects. Some sailing with, 
others against the current ; many crossing from one adit of the canal to the opposite ; 
and countless numbers lying at anchor. 

Ching-keang-foo being the key to the southern provinces, the out-port on which 
Nanking depends for its security against foreign aggression, was deemed of correspond- 
ing importance to the British troops in the subjugation of the Chinese empire. Being 
strongly protected by walls, thirty feet in height, and five in thickness, containing a 
large and active population, and being garrisoned by a body of resolute Tartars, its 
reduction was considered both the more necessary and more glorious to our army. 
Ascending the canal, and effecting a safe landing on both sides of the water, at the 
foot of a lofty and noble bridge of one arch, the British commenced a vigorous assault 
upon the west gate of the city. A much warmer reception than was anticipated, at 
first threw the assailants into some confusion, and the Blonde's boats, after a desperate 
resistance, were actually for a while in the enemy's hands. From this perilous position, 
however, they were soon released, by a party of marines and seamen belonging to the 

This momentary discomfiture only lent new resolution to those who were its victims ; 
and, under cover of a destructive fire from the opposite bank of the canal. Captain 
Richardson led up a scaling party to the walls. Rockets and heavy guns soon over- 
threw the gate-towers, and the gates themselves becoming a mass of flame, destroyed 
all prospect of future resistance. Submission now was the sole remaining portion of 
the Tartars, who had fought with courage and devotion. 













Only four miles in circuit, Cliing-keang-foo is but a minor city, indeed it is the 
fifth in magnitude in Kiang-nan ; however, from its geographical position, it is always 
esteemed one of the first in commercial rank. The streets are narrow, paved with mar- 
ble, and contain many well-supplied shops, in which horn for lanterns forms a prominent 
article of sale; and the suburbs are nearly equal to the enclosed city in extent. 


With varied colours drest, the mountain-steep 

Reflects its radiance o'er the glassy deep, 

Nature's broad mirror, where its giant form 

Is seen through ages, scathless mid the storm. H. 

Although long excluded from intercourse with this picturesque port, the English were 
early in habits of commercial friendship with the citizens. Here a stirring and a 
sterling trade existed before foreigners were restricted in their barter to Canton ; and 
none of the five free ports thrown open by the interference of British arms, has wel- 
comed back the stranger with more sincerity than that of Heamun. An island, fertile 
and fortified, obstructs the winds and waves in their progress from the east, rendering 
the inner cove always smooth and sheltered. But this agreeable spot, called by the 
natives Ko-long-soo, or island of crystal fountains, is insufiicient to save the vessels that 
lie inside from the depredations of desperate men, that seek their sustenance by 
piracy alone. All night long the hoarse sounds of "red artillery," booming heavily 
along the waters, tell that the crews of the junks at anchor in the bay, are prepared to 
defend themselves against sudden aggression ; and this practice prevailed even while 
British men-of-war lay moored in the offing. 

Nothing can be imagined more pleasing, picturesque, and animated, than the pros- 
pect of this vast mercantile harbour from the heights of Ko-long-soo. The deep 
channel, crowded with junks, is at the observer's feet ; the narrow promontory, forming 
a chief suburb, projects beyond : further still is the second passage, backed by those 
noble hills of granite which separate the marine district from the mainland. 

Essentially nautical, the inhabitants of Ko-long-soo and Amoy have cultivated 
foreign trade and coasting traffic with considerable success. Excluded from the imme- 
diate advantages of internal communication and carriage, by the intervention of exten- 
sive and elevated mountain-chains, they have found more than remuneration in external 
dealing. Formosa, the nurse of pirates, has long conducted a profitable trade with the 
Heamuns ; the merchants of this port have dealt directly with Singapore for many a year, 
and there is a continuous export of sugar to the northern towns, for which rice and other 
necessaries are brought back in return. From their isolated position, the Fokienese retain 
many peculiarities that are not observable amongst the natives of other provinces ; their 


language, whether it be the pure and primitive tongue, or a corruption induced by 
foreign intercourse, is nearly unintelligible to all other Chinamen. Fokien also is the 
seat of the black-tea cultivation ; the term bohea being only a mispronunciation of f'aee, 
the name of the shan, or hills, where it is grown and prepared ; and tea, an abusive sound 
of the more proper term cha, the double letter ch being sounded t by the Fokienese.* 


There is a majesty more felt than seen, 
In the vast city with its peopled homes ; 
And hearts all full of an immortal life, 
Thousands and tens of thousands beating there. 


The form of the enclosure, or enceinte, of ancient Nanking is very irregular, having been 
accommodated to the inequalities of surface and limits of inundations that occasionally 
take place. In one part lofty hills arise, affording a prospect over the whole urban and 
suburban area ; in another the dwellings are brought into close and constant contact. 
At the south-west angle, where the public offices are placed, and a water-gate leads to 
a spacious four-arched bridge, that crosses the canal, is that suburb .situated on which 
the famous tower has looked down for many centuries. A few cash procure ready 
admission, and having examined the relics of superstition which have escaped the 
ferocity of the Tartar, and rudeness of more recent iconoclasts, an ascent to the summit 
will repay rational curiosity. Eastward, yet at the pagoda's base, is seen the Tartar 
keep, an imperium in imperio, city within city, being securely enclosed by its own walls, 
although in the very centre of the great fortified area itself. Beyond and northward, 
lofty, steep, and sterile hills, some of them included within the mural cincture, rival the 
pagoda in towering height. Farther still, continuously, the Yang-tse-keang, like an inland 
sea, expands its broad surface to the mountain's foot ; and at some three miles' distance, 
is the junction of the canal of Nanking with that great and noble river. Casting the 
eye beneath, from the narrow balcony's dizzy height, a court-yard of oblong form is 
discovered, having at its further extremity a hall of learning or of religion, according to 
circumstances ; and on either side are cells, appropriated to the idle bonzes, who live 
in tolerable ease on public generosity. Large tracts of uncultivated land appear to be 
the property of this inactive community; but whether they disdain labour, while they are 
not ashamed to beg, or some religious scruple intervenes, these appear devoted to eternal 
sterility. From this bird's-eye view of Nanking, a correct idea may be formed of the 
social architecture of the Chinese, and the systematic arrangement of their civic 
avenues. Discipline, method, established obedience, are conspicuous in every part ; 

• Vide vol. ii. p. 69. Vol. iii. p. 56. 










"¥■ '■'■■'({' 'V 




and when the populousness of the empire is considered, the statesman may possibly 
find reason to conclude, that the freedom of the subject has not been unnecessarily 
coerced, nor the administration of justice neglected, in this ancient and absolute 

It was at the influx of the canal of Nanking, the north-west corner of the city, that 
the British vessels of war, Cornwallis and Blonde, cast anchor, with orders to effect a 
breach in the walls ; which catastrophe the astonished citizens averted by a timely sub- 
mission. Tills point is distinctly visible in the panorama witnessed from the tower, as 
well as the extremity of the paved road, seven miles in length, leading from the gate of 
victory to a landing-place, on the Yang-tse-kiang, near to which the transports were 
directed to anchor on the same occasion. The imaginative portion on the right of the 
accompanying view, is the enceinte of the ancient city, — on the left, the remainder of 
the town-suburb.* 



These Islards that, empurpled bright. 
Floated amid the livelier light ; 
And mountains, that like giants stand 
To sentinel th' enchanted land. 

The Island. 

Within view of the Golden Island, and on the bright bosom of that wide expanse of 
waters westward of Chin-keang-foo, the Yin-shan, or Silver Island, rises with much 
beauty and grandeur, from the surface j less lofty and precipitous, less adorned also 
with pagodas and palaces, than its more favoured rival, Silver Island is nevertheless 
possessed of features both pleasing and picturesque. The richest foliage clothes its 
sides and summit; cottages and villas peep forth from the dense masses of deep 
verdure that conceal its form, and, from the great depth of water close to shore, the 
scene is uniformly enriched by the accompaniment of large barges and trading-junks at 
anchor all around, their forms being distinctly relieved upon the verdant surface behind 
them. The fleet of Queen Victoria having anchored close to these isles of beauty, and 
a strong detachment having been landed at Ching-keang-foo, Chinese infatuation was from 
that moment dissipated. The stranger had found a highway to the best cities in the 
bosom of the empire; and social intercourse with foreigners had always been considered, 
by Chinese rulers, as an experiment too dangerous to be tried. No sooner, therefore, 
had an easy victory crowned with success the British arms, than the government pru- 
dently resolved upon submitting to whatever conditions the conquerors thought it expe- 
• Vide further details of Nanking, its towers and temples, in vol. i. p. 74, vol. ii. p. 16 — 32, et seq. 
IV. L 


dient to propose. The capture of the Golden and Silver Islands, the occupation of the 
wide expanse of waters that encircle them, by a British force, decided the contest 
between England and the Chinese empire. 

It is about six hundred years ago, since a Temple to Fo was erected here, and 
a Hall of Learning attached to it ; and so great was its sanctity at that period, or shortly 
after, that the praise of its priests, and the natural beauties of their rocky domain, 
became the theme of Lew-yan's most celebrated songs. This prince and poet first 
employs the more ancient name Keen-too-shan, or hill of solid earth, in his poems, but 
subsequently, in speaking of the comparative beauties of the sister isles, introduces the 
epithets Yin-shan and Kin-shan. 

An enthusiast who once dwelt here, in the temple founded under the Yuan dynasty, 
pretended to powers never committed to the control of erring mortalitj'. He professed 
to render the persons of his consulters proof against the point of the dagger — the flame 
of the fire — the strain of the rack. This avocation was successful in filling his treasury ; 
the victims of his imposture, probably, being unwilling to acknowledge how completely 
they had been duped. But, just when he imagined his throne to be established, the 
emperor, who had been informed of his guilt, put him to death by that cruel process 
called " Ling-chy," or cutting into ten thousand pieces. 


He knows his fault, he feels, he views, 
Detesting what he most pursues ; 
His judgment tells him, all his gains 
For fleeting joys, are lasting pains. 

The Gamester' 

The Abbe Grosier says, " the Chinese are entirely ignorant of all games of chance :" 
so far is this from being true, that there is no nation in the world, the humbler classes 
of which are so entirely the slaves of this besetting vice. To this hateful propensity 
is to be ascribed their indifference to manly exercises, and to all those nobler sports 
that impart health and vigour to the bod}', generosity to the mind. They practise fishing 
less as an amusement than a trade, employing in its pursuit an endless number of snares ; 
such as the varnished plank facing the moon ; the flat and the purse nets, dulls and 
gins of various kinds, three-pronged spears, the bow and arrow, and the diving cormo- 
rant. Hunting is held in little estimation, the former being at liberty to save his crops 
by destroying all those animals that are deemed destructive to vegetation. While 
fishing, fowling, and hunting, are thus excluded from their national amusements, — 
theatres, kite-flying, cricket, and quail-fighting, lot-drawing, mora-playing, cards and 
dice, prevail universally. 










The picturesque spot on which Mr. Allom has spread a bamboo mat, for the idle 
Haimenese to indulge their morbid taste, is in the solemn locality of the city of the 
dead, — the ancient tombs hewn in the solid rock, records which the very gamblers, 
who desecrate the scene, hold in the utmost veneration. 

The encouragement of this demoralizing vice by the Chinese, creates a distinction 
peculiarly remarkable, between that nation and the ancient kingdoms of Europe. 
In the latter, so far back as we have historic information of the fact, gamblers and 
spendthrifts were not only held in utter detestation, but punished also by public marks 
of degradation and contempt. Seneca- calls the fruits of gaming, "the baits, not the 
boons of fortune;" another wise man pronounces the catastrophe of such a life to be 
sorrow, shame, and poverty. By an edict of the emperor Adrian, gamblers were 
declared to be prodigal fools, deserving of public reprobation, and exclusion from all 
societies. The Beotians brought their ruined spendthrifts into the market-place, an 
empty purse being carried before them, and, placing them on a stone called the pro- 
digal's chair, left them exposed to the scoffs of the multitude. Near to the senate- 
house, in Padua, may yet be seen " the stone of turpitude," devoted originally to a 
similar purpose ; and, some early European civilians thought that guardians might be 
appointed to save the property, and observe the actions, of a gambler, in the same 
manner as well-ordered governments, in modern times, protect the persons and estates 
of all acknowledged lunatics. 



Though the grave were in his way. 
Forward, would the Briton say; 
And upon his latest breath, 
Would be " Victory or Death." 

In its progress northward, after Amoy had been captured, the British fleet entered the 
estuary of the Chin-chew river, on the south bank of which, but some miles inland, the 
city of Tscuen-tcheou-foo is situated. As this port was the very focus of the contra- 
band traffic in opium, some rude preparations had been made to resist the approach 
of a hostile expedition. Description of those puerile operations is superseded by the 
intelligible, and very clever drawings of the scene, which the portfolio of Captain 
Stoddart, a sharer of the expedition, placed under Mr. Allom's control. The Chinese 
junks kept at a respectful distance, from the boats of the detachment that was ordered 
to effect a landing at the foot of a bluff on the north side of the river, and, as to the brave 
Tartars, who were placed there to serve the guns on shore, after a few discharges only, 
they fled in the wildest dismay, abandoning their copper ordinance and all their ammu- 


nition to the enemy. The material of which they were made, rendered the captured 
cannon something more than trophies of glory : the value of those taken at Chin-hae alone, 
exceeded .£10,000 sterling ; and the spoils of Woo-sung were still more important. 

The commercial city, to which the Chin-chew river is the highway, holds a distin- 
guished place amongst those of the first class : inferior to few in geographical position, 
and in healthful trade, it is eminently adorned with triumphal arches, temples, and 
other public edifices, its streets being remarkable for their extent and width. Seven 
cities of the third rank are placed under the protection of this ancient and populous 
fou. It is in the immediate vicinity of Tsuen-tcheou, that the extraordinary bridge 
is to be seen, which Martini has described in the following terms ; — " I saw it twice, 
and each time with astonishment. It is built entirely of a blackish stone, and has no 
arches, but upwards of three hundred large stone pillars, which terminate on each side 
in an acute angle, to break the violence of the current with great facility. Five stones 
of equal size, laid transversely from one pillar to another, form the breadth of the 
bridge, each of which, according to the measurement I made in walking, was eighteen 
of my ordinary steps in length; there are one thousand of them, all of the same size 
and figure : a wonderful work, when one considers the great number of these heavy 
stones, and the manner in which they are supported between the pillars. On each side 
there are buttresses or props, constructed of the same kind of stone, on the tops of 
which are placed lions on pedestals, and other ornaments of a similar description." 
Many lives having been lost while ferry-boats were the only means of crossing these 
troubled waters, a certain humane governor of the city constructed this splendid 
monument to his fame, at his sole expense. That expense, if reliance may be placed on 
the accounts of the learned Du Halde, amounted to half a million sterling. 


" Now he weighs time even to the utmost grain." — Henry V. 

O.v the north bank of the Yang-tse-keang, and opposite to the canal that extends from 
that river to the walls of Nanking, may still be seen the mouldering battlements of Poo- 
keou-hien. These primitive defences were never of considerable height or strength, and 
their preservation is less to be ascribed to original solidity, than to the mildness of 
climate and conservative disposition of the native population. The enceinte of the 
deserted city is now grown over with shrubs and wild flowers ; and such is Chinese 
veneration for ancient places — so great the superstition that protects all records of days 
long numbered — that not the slightest trespass is ever committed upon this solitary site. 
Nature has resumed her empire within the walls which the industry of man had raised 
for her exclusion. The forsaken pagoda that crowns the summit of a rocky eminence. 


^ 1 

^ I 







I 1 

. Ss 







rising i-ather rapidly above the river, consists of five stories, resting on a substructure, that 
would appear, from the solid quality of the natural foundation, to have been altogether 
unnecessary. From its plain decorations, and very inferior style, it may probably have 
been dedicated to the winds, or the waves, rather than to Buddha, whose priests would 
not readily have abandoned a position so agreeably and felicitously placed for the 
visits of votaries. In several places of China, known to Europeans, temples of the winds 
have been found, without either priests or protectors, and resigned, like the forsaken 
pagoda of Poo-keou, to the mercy of their tutelar deities. 

Its proximity to Nanking gives ample employment to the rural population of this 
district, and facility of water-conveyance is amongst the chief advantages which they 
enjoy. 'Tis true, labour is cheap vi-here hands are numerous, and the Chinese are more 
lavish of manual workmanship than any other people that we are acquainted with ; yet in 
some few instances they seem to practise an economy in time and trouble, totally at 
variance with their habitual extravagance of both, in all others. A market-gardener of 
Poo-keou, having loaded his boat heavily with fruit and vegetables, erects a bamboo 
mast, unfurls a sail of bamboo-fibres, and, drawing together the bamboo cords that 
constitute his reefing-tackle, makes fast their common extremity to a pin beside him. 
Placing his pipe securely in his mouth, and his broad bamboo hat as firmly on his head, 
he proceeds upon his voyage : — should the wind be sufficient to fill his sail, then with 
one hand he tightens or relaxes his tackle, and with the other holds the helm. One oar is 
allowed to lie idle, but the other is worked advantageously, both for guidance and pro- 
pulsion, with the foot. This illustration of customs forms a striking contrast to another, 
which the same scenic representation exhibits. While the economist of labour is passing 
in his laden boat, fishermen are actively engaged with their trained diving-birds, procuring 
a supply for the market of Nanking. In this most tedious process, a process which has 
been previously described in the pages of these volumes, the sagacity of the cormorant 
is alone entitled to our admiration ; the indefatigable patience, that caused its develop- 
ment, deserving little more than our compassion. 


" Oh ! who shall say 
That man is nothing? when his mind can make 
Conquest of stubborn earth, and sea, and air, 
And all that is therein !" 

HoNG-KONG, or Heong-keong, land of crystal streams, at a distance appears, like all 
others of " the thousand islands" that stud the estuary of the Tigris — precipitous and 
uninviting. Its high hills often terminate in sharp peaks, and are thickly strewn with 

• The principal facts in this account of Victoria, and the island of Hong-kong generally, are taken from a 
paper in the Journal of the Geographical Society, by A. R. Johnston, Esq-, Deputy- Superintendent of 
Trade at Canton. Indeed, it is to the zeal and decision of this able and active oiEcer, that the unexampled suc- 
cess of this important dep6t of commerce is to be attributed. 

IV. M 


masses of rock, of primitive formation, frequently piled upon one another in a remark- 
able and sometimes fantastic manner, with here and there a lower hill, covered with 
gravel and sand. From the summit to the waters edge there are few or no trees ; and 
except in the months of May, June, July, and August, when these islands look green, 
they might be supposed to be quite barren. 

" On landing and examining the island, the north and north-east sides are found to be 
separated fi'om the south and south-west by a continued range of hills, in no place less 
than 500, in most parts upwards of 1,000, and in more than one instance reaching 1,744 
feet above the level of the sea. When to this is added, that the utmost breadth of the 
island does not exceed four or five miles, it may easily be imagined that the descent to 
the sea on either side is very abrupt. 

"The eastern end of the island is divided from the centre by two deep ravines, both 
running from the same eminence ; the one in a south-east direction, which terminates in 
Tie-tam bay ; and the other, in a northerly direction, terminating in the small valley of 
Wang-nie-chong. The western part of the island is likewise divided from the centre 
by two ravines, both running from the same eminence ; the one to the south, terminating 
in a small undulating piece of country, on which the village of Pok-foo-lum is situated ; 
and the other to the north, where it spreads out and forms Government-hill and the 
small flat beneath. Small streams descend all these ravines, and they quickly swell 
into torrents when rain falls ; but, it is somewhat remarkable, that they never fail to 
furnish water in the driest season of the year. There are also other smaller rivulets 
which furnish a good supply of water at all seasons. 

" A coarse kind of grass is found on all the hills: on those having a northerly and 
north-easterly aspect, it is choked by ferns and brushwood ; but, where it is southerly, 
its growth is unchecked, except when burnt by the natives. 

"Victoria is the only town on the island ; this was founded by the English, in 1841, 
and formally ceded to the British crown under the Nanking treaty. In the short term 
of two years from Sir H. Pottinger's arrival, when a tent was pitched for the government- 
residence, a large town has sprung up, a dense population has accumulated. Here now are 
to be seen extensive stores, forts, wide streets, bazaars, and markets. A noble military 
road, sixteen yards broad, has been constructed, and continued entirely round the island. 
Branch roads to Tie-tam and Chuck-py-wan, traverse the hills, exhibiting in their for- 
mation the most scientific modes of civil engineering practised in Europe. The list of 
public buildings includes a government-house, jail, court-house, church. Baptist chapel, 
a Catholic establishment, Morrison's Education Society, medical, missionaries', and 
mariners' hospitals. Including the Chinese quarter, situated east of the governor's 
house, the total population amounts to 14,000 souls. 

"The village of Chek-choo, the largest and most important on the island, contains 800 
inhabitants. There are 180 dwellings and shops at this place, and the average value of 
each house is 400 dollars. The people are employed in trading, in farming, and in curing 
fish. About sixty mows* of land are under cultivation here, which the owners value 

• Sir George Staunton roughly estimates the Chinese mow at 1,000 square yards of our measure. 


at forty dollars a mow of rice-ground, and fifteen dollars a mow of land for the cultiva- 
tion of vegetables. The natives cure about 150 pekuls* of fish a month, consuming 
in the process from thirty to forty pekuls of salt, paying one Spanish dollar for five 
pekuls : 350 boats, large and small, traffic with the place, but not more than thirty are 
owned by the natives ; most of their boats are used for fishing in the vicinity, and 
the fish, when cured, is exchanged at Canton, and other nearer places, for the neces- 
saries of life. 

" The houses at Chek-choo, although inferior to those in an ordinary Chinese town 
on the mainland, are yet superior to those found in the other villages of Hong-kong ; 
but the quality of land under cultivation, as well as the quantity, is not equal to that at 
Heong-kong, Wang-nie-chong, Soo-kun-poo, and Pok-foo-lum, places that may be 
strictly denominated agricultural villages. 

" The other villages on the island, besides Chek-choo, are — Heong-kong, from which 
the island derives its name, prettily embowered in trees, surrounded by cultivated land, 
and having about 200 inhabitants. Tie-tam is situated at the head of a deep bay, where 
a good deal of flat land may be reclaimed, and a good boat-harbour formed. A few 
ships may find protection from the weather in particular parts of the bay of Tie-tam ; 
but the other parts are exposed in both monsoons. Some fifty poor people dwell here. 
Wang-nie-chong and Soo-kun-poo are picturesquely placed in the midst of fruit-trees, 
and surrounded by cultivated land. In their vicinity, as at Tie-tam, a considerable 
extent of land might be reclaimed from the sea, and it shortly will be much required for 
building-purposes. The united population of the two villages amounts to about 350. 
Pok-foo-lum is situated about 500 feet above the level of the sea, and commands an 
extensive view of all the islands to the south and west, as far as Macao. There are, 
besides the villages enumerated, many hamlets on the east coast of the island, where 
the magnificent granite of Hong-kong is principally quarried." 

The climate is not essentially different from that of Macao, although, of course, 
particular sheltered localities are more hot, while, on the other hand, those that are 
exposed to the monsoons are cooler. Indeed, the description of the climate of Macao 
by the late Dr. Pearson, who was for many years the medical attendant of the Com- 
pany's establishment there, applies with equal propriety to that of Hong-kong. The 
most prevalent diseases are intermittent and remittent fevers, and dysentery ; inter- 
mittent fever is very common about the equinoxes, and in the cold weather ; remittent 
fevers prevail during the hot season, especially ; dysentery is common during the whole 
year, but particularly after sudden changes of weather. The natives appear to sutfer 
from these complaints as well as Europeans, but they have no remedies of their own 
except counter-irritation, produced by pinching and rubbing with the fingers, and with 
copper cash, in fevers. Vaccination has been introduced by Europeans since the occu- 
pation of the island. 

The only animals found here are a species of deer, the armadillo, and the land 
tortoise; several sorts of snakes have been observed. 

• A pekiil is oiiuiil ti) I.33i llis. of our measiire. 


Among the fruits and vegetables produced on the island are the mango, lichee, 
longan, orange, pear, rice, sweet potatoes, and yams ; a small quantity of flax is grown, 
and prepared for household uses by the villagers. Since the occupation of the island 
by the English, the potato of Europe, and the fruits of Canton and Macao, have been 
introduced ; and many European seeds have been brought out by the agent of the 
Horticultural Society of London. 

" The prevailing rock of Hong-kong and of the surrounding islands is granite, in all 
its species ; one having the quartz, mica, and felspar well mixed, and suited for the best 
sorts of building-purposes; and another, wherein these three ingredients vary in propor- 
tion, are not so closely mixed, and consequently only adapted for foundations, dikes, and 
the other rougher sorts of masonry. 

" In some places close to the sea, veins of trap are found, varying from six inches to a 
foot in thickness. On the south and west sides of the island the rock differs from the 
generality of the species on the opposite side, and assumes the appearance of thick flag- 
stone, breaking into large crystallized pieces, which it likewise does on the pinnacle of the 
highest hills, and from time to time falls down and spreads over the surface at their bases. 
These large stones are very numerous in particular localities, but, owing to their exces- 
sive hardness, the Chinese have not yet got into the way of cutting them for use. 
Occasionally, something like sandstone is found in small pieces, but not of sufBcienl 
size to be used for building.^' 


Bridges, and palaces, and towers, 

Now rise by such strange quick'ning powers, 

That we, who come of ancient race. 

Must travel with a slower pace. H. 

In primitive forests, where time and tempest struggle for dominion, huge trees are 
prostrated by these giant powers, and thrown into singular positions. Sometimes they 
fall and lean against each other, in a Gothic arch ; sometimes they lie in heaps, like 
basaltic columns ; and at others they stretch across the ravine or the torrent, as securely 
as if science had lent her aid in their disposition. It was such accident, if there be 
chance in the operations of nature, that first suggested the idea of the horizontal bridge, 
consisting of a single plank ; hence it may with some probability be concluded, that the 
flat arch is the most ancient in use, not only amongst the Chinese but other nations 
also. At later periods, when industry and civilization had grown old together, these people 
executed works of the greatest engineering difficulties ; amongst such are bridges of 
some hundred arches, resting on piers of solid masonry, triumphal monuments of the 
richest design, arches, and aqueducts. Even the art of tunnelling was early practised. 









and it is several centuries since Colao, a native of Quang-tong, caused the high moun- 
tain that hangs over Nanking to be pierced through from north to south, by a high road 
for travellers. 

The flat bridge of a single opening on the river of Chapoo is obviously of the most 
early style. Strong abutments being constructed, large flags are laid, lapping one over 
the other like stairs, to the edge, or nearly, of the pier, from which flag-stones of requi- 
site dimensions are laid across the interval. In the next era of bridge-building the 
Egyptian arch was adopted ; in the third, the segment of a perfect circle. 

On the balustrade of Chapoo bridge, lions couchant, rather rudely executed, are placed, 
emblematic of the magnificence of the structure, or the great ability of the architect. 
In no country is learning held in higher esteem, art pursued with greater zeal, or genius 
more uniformly rewarded. The captain of a Tartar band, who succeeds in annihilating 
or dispersing a banditti, is honoured with a triumphal arch, on which his exploits are 
blazoned in letters of gold ; temples are raised to the shade of the philosopher ; and the 
fame of the artist is perpetuated by various types of national eulogy. The engineer 
of the great tunnel at Nanking is ever before the eyes and the minds of his country- 
men, a monument to his honour being placed on the highest pinnacle of the mountain 
which the tunnel pierces. The memory of their princes is also preserved by architec- 
tural testimonials, inferior, however, in most instances, to the monuments of those 
whom science or virtue has rendered illustrious. Although women are secluded from 
public life in China, they are treated with the utmost tenderness, their lords pretend- 
ing, that it is solely with a view to spare their feelings, that they do not require them 
to participate in the active duties of society. Whether this be a specimen of Chinese 
duplicity, or a true and genuine sentiment, it is certain that the highest honours are 
frequently paid to female virtue, and the praises of the softer sex are not only cele- 
brated in the stanzas of the poet, but obelisks and arches, and monuments of the 
most costly character, are also raised, to mark a nation's admiration of the high qualities 
that distinguish mother, wife, and daughter. 


The uplands sloping deck the mountain's side, 

Woods over woods in gay theatric pride, 

While oft some temple's mouldering tops between, 

With memorable grandeur mark the scene. Goldsmith. 

This beautiful panorama displays the majestic character of the scenery amongst the 
Chusan group with the best effect and the most entire truth. It presents all the happy 
combinations of mountain, water, wood, waste, and cultivated lands, that occur in the 
landscapes of this archipelago ; and, although detached from the continental territories 

IV. N 


of the empire, Cliusaii is in every respect a true evidence of the cultivated condition to 
which the Chinese people have attained by their long and undisturbed repose. Nowhere 
could a scene be found more fully developing climate, agriculture, and national habits 
than the accompanying comprehensive view. Neither chilled by the colds of a Peking 
winter, nor debilitated by the heat of a Canton summer-sun, the Chusan peasant improves 
every moment of each revolving season, by putting in crop after crop, into the soil 
which his labour has fertilized ; and it is a fact of which the British were ignorant 
when they made a descent upon these islands, that a life, accompanied by tem- 
perance, is here usually prolonged to many years, and seldom interrupted by the 
visitations of disease. 

At the close of these Volumes, in which as much has been attempted as the limits to 
which each illustration confined the illustrator would permit, it may not, probably, be 
unacceptable to give a general outline of Chinese statistics, topography, and religion — 
and to touch slightly, also, upon the peculiarities of their character and language. We 
are assured that China Proper, which native writers call " The Centre of the World,'' 
covers a million and a half square miles, and maintains a hundred and forty-six millions 
of inhabitants ; of these, two millions live permanently on the water. Their sailors do 
not exceed thirty thousand in number; they have an army consisting of eight hundred 
thousand infantry, with half that number of cavalry, and their civil and military officers 
amount to about twelve thousand. The Eastern ocean confines this vast empire on one 
side — political limits are prescribed to the wanderings of the Kalmucs or Eleuthes on the 
other — the south is also bounded by the sea — but the great wall of Mongolia is fixed 
betvs'een the Chinese and the Tartars on the north. This extraordinary work, 
which has been described in the preceding pages, was erected two thousand years 
ago, extends fifteen-hundred miles, is thirty-feet in height, and twenty in thickness. 
Within China Proper are 1572 towns, the principal of which are Peking, Nanking, and 
Canton; 1193 fortresses, which, however, afford no protection against foreign invasion; 
2796 temples, in which idolatry prevails to a melancholy extent ; 2606 convents ; and 32 
imperial palaces. Two vast mountain-chains may be said to subdivide the empire — one 
in the south-east, the other in the north-west. These districts are diflicult of access ; 
nor is the attempt unattended with danger, from the savage tribes by which they are 
still inhabited. Travellers have not extended their inquiries beyond the Meiling 
mountains, the scenery of which is remarkably picturesque, especially in the vicinity of 
the Poyang lake, over which they tower to a height of 3000 feel. Granite, sandstone, 
slate, and limestone occur in all those mountainous regions, and coal abounds in Shan- 
tong, and various other places, convenient for working and for transport. Besides lofty 
and extended mountains, China also includes wide-spread plains ; of these, the greatest lie 
between the Hoang-ho and Yang-tse-keang rivers. 

These great arteries of health, fertllitj^, and commerce, traverse some thousands 
of miles before they reach the sea, receiving supplies from many tributary streams, and 
themselves feeding innumerable canals. One line of still-water navigation, known 


as the Imperial canal, is fourteen hundred miles in length, and forms a communication 
between Peking and Canton, with the interruption of a single day's journey only. 

Agriculture continues to be an honoured occupation ; and prosperity has accord- 
ingly attended its pursuit. The principal production is rice, except in the colder 
latitudes, where its place is supplied by wheat and other grains. Yams, potatoes, beans, 
turnips, and white cabbage, (petsae) are grown commonly; tillage is universally spread 
over the surface, the steepest hills being subdued by cultivation, and artificially watered. 
No fences divide the farms ; no gates give entrance to them ; and the manner in which 
the peasants' dwellings are situated — not collected into hamlets, but scattered over the 
country — contributes to the agreeable character of the picture, to the promotion of 
agriculture, and the protection of property from wild animals, or midnight depredations. 
To preserve inviolate this reverence for agriculture, the emperor in person opens the 
spring season of each returning year, by holding the plough, and turning over several 
furrows in an appointed field. 

Horticulture also is extensively practised, but it has not been studied with that diligence 
or depth which it requires. Few foreign plants are found in the gardens of the man- 
darins, or of the rural population, but nature has been bountiful in dispersing arborical 
and vegetable treasures of other kinds, amongst the various climes of this w-ide-spread 
empire. Here the tea-plant, camphor, aloe, sugar-cane, bamboo, indigo, cotton, rhubarb, 
varnish, soap, tallow, wax trees, and the li-tchi are indigenous, from each of which 
either a vast amount of foreign revenue is derived, or an incalculable advantage at 
home. The camel is the usual beast of burden ; and amongst the untamed kinds are 
the elephant, rhinoceros, tiger, musk-ox, boar, fox, deer, and ape. Pheasants and 
peacocks claim this part of the globe as their native home ; and the brilliancy of their 
plumage first suggested to the artists of China, those gaudy colours that so universally 
prevail in every object of decoration. 

Mineral treasures lie buried in the depths of the mountain-masses, but they are drawn 
forth seldom, and with little skill. Gold is procured from the sands of the rivers in 
Se-tchuen. and Yun-nan, and silver might be raised in various places, but as neither is 
corned in China, their discovery or possession is of less value : copper, arsenic, and 
quicksilver are procured here ; lapis lazuli, rock-crystal, the loadstone, and beautifully 
variegated marbles, constitute articles of trade and export. 

The government is an absolute monarchy, the autocrat being styled " holy son of 
heaven, sole guardian of the earth, father of his people." Oiferings are made to his 
image and throne ; his person is worshipped, and his subjects ])rostrate themselves before 
him. When he appears in public, he is attended by two thousand hctors, bearing chains, 
axes, and other emblems of Oriental despotism. He has three wives, of whom one only 
bears the title of empress ; and mandarins of the first class, alone have the privilege of 
approaching the royal person, and communicating complaints from his injured subjects. 
As to the wise laws of this ancient people, they may be more properly characterized as 
prudent police regulations, accompanied with useful moral precepts. They place in 


the hands of the emi)eror, and also of his mandarins, unUmited power over the hberty 
of the subject, who is required to pay a blind obedience to his august masters. 

Mechanical skill has been carried to a great degree of perfection, and their dexterity 
and industry in the manufacture of silks, stuffs, porcelain, lackered ware, and other 
articles, is so astonishing, that it can only be compared with their own great labour in 
digging canals, laying out gardens, levelling mountains, and constructing bridges. Very 
many of the most useful mventions employed in other countries, originated with the 
Chinese. They printed books before that art was known in Europe, by means of char- 
acters carved on wooden blocks, which is their present practice. They have been long 
acquainted with the use of gunpowder, and were familiar with the properties of the 
magnet many centuries before the Western world applied it in traversing the pathless 

In literature the Chinese are by no means deficient ; their language abounds in 
works of every description, both in verse and prose. They study moral philosophy 
with diligence, and have very many interesting volumes on history, geography, voyages, 
drama, romance, and fictions of various kinds. The works of Confucius, and his 
successor Meng-tseu, have been translated from the Chinese, and the original accom- 
panied by a Latin version, has been published at Paris. 

The Chinese are an ancient, civilized, and polished nation, the most remarkable in- 
stance of a peopleso powerful, continuing so long excluded, that universal history presents. 
They offer examples for imitation to a large portion of the human race, while they have 
themselves also much to learn. England has broken in upon the historic silence that 
shaded them from the observation of ambitious nations, and exposed them,consequently, to 
the continued importunities of foreign powers, seeking treaties of alliance, friendship, or 
commerce. It is the duty, therefore, of England, to guard her victim from the danger to 
which she has been exposed, and in doing so, her own national interests will be most 
advantageously promoted. 


The NUMERAL LETTERS indicate tlie volume — the figures the page. 


Altar-piece, great temple, Ting-liai, ii. 52. 
Amoy, ancient tombs at, iv. 31. 

, city of, from the tombs, iv. 23. 

, entrance to the city of, ii. 69. 

-, from Ko-loug-soo, iv. 89. 

, from the outer harbour, iii. 5(5. 

Aqueduct, Hong-kong, i. 33. 

Bamboo aqueduct, i. 33. 
Barber, an itinerant, iii. 51. 
Bastinado, punishment of the, i. 35. 
Boatman economizing time and labour, iv. 44. 
Bocca Tigris, " Imogene " and " Andromache " 

passing, i. 84. 
Bonzes, temple of, i. 49. 

Boudoir and bedchamber of a lady of rank, ii. 30. 
Bridge at Chapoo, iv. 48. 
• Nankins', iv. 30. 

Camoens, grotto of, Macao, Hi. 42. 
Canton, cap-vender's shop in, iii. 48. 

, Chinese merchant's house, i. 95. 

, bargemen fighting quails at, ii. 65. 

Canton, European factories, i. 70. 

, pagoda and village on the canal, iv. 33. 

, scene on the Honan canal, iv. 34. 

, street in, 11. 62. 

, temple of Buddha, i. 37. 

Card-playing, ill. 18. 

Cascade of Ting-hoo, or the Tripod lake, iv. 9. 

Cat-merchants, i. 77. 

Cataract, Shih-tan, Hi. 45. 

Cemetery, Chinese, iii. 62. 

Ceremony of meeting the spring, iv. 1 5. 

Chapoo, ancient bridge at, iv. 48. 

, attack on, iii. 49. 

Chaou-king-foo, Hea Hills, near, ii. 35, 
Chin-chew river, entrance to, iv. 43. 
Chinese boatmen, iv. 44, 
Chin-keang-foo, iv. 38. 
Chln-keang river, mouth of, iv. 13. 
Choklen, military station at, i. 53. 
Chusan, British encampment at, on Irgao-shan, 
i. 89. 

, Ting-hai, capture of, i. 91. 

Chrysalides, destroying of, ii. 8. 
Chuen-pee, attack and capture of, ii. 5. 
Coal mines, Ying-tih, iv. 14. 
Cocoons, sorting of, i. 56. 



Cocoons, winding ofl', ii. 8. 
Conseequa, house of, Canton, ii. 12. 

, fountain court in, ii. 54. 

Confucius, temple of, first entrance, Ching-hai, 

ii. 48. 
Cotton plantations, Ning-po, ii. 25. 


Dane's Island, Whampoa from, i. 80. 
Dice players near Amoy, iv. 42. 
Dinner-party at a mandarin's house, i. 93. 
Doctor, an itinerant, at Tien-sing, ii. 13. 
Dragon boat, festival of the, iv. 21. 

Encampment, British, at Chusan, i. 89. 

Factories, European, Canton, i. 70. 

Feast of lanterns, ii. 71. 

Festival of the dragon-boat, iv. 21. 

Fishing cormorants, iv. 44. 

Five horses' heads, or Ou-ma-too, i. 63. 

Fo-kien, Bohea hills, ii. 45. 

Foochun hill, province of Che-keang, ii. IJ 

Fortress of terror, Tino'-hai, iv. 27. 

Golden Island, on the Yang-tse-keang river, i. 5. 


Hae-kwan, kite-flying at, iv. 6. 

Han-tseuen, iv. 20. 

Harvest moon sacrifice, iii. 36. 

Hea Hills, near Chaou-king-foo, ii. 35. 

Heang-shan, forts of, Macao, ii. 27. 

Hoang-ho, or Yellow river, iii. 34. 

Honan Canal, Canton, iv. 34. 

, temple of, iii. 66. 

, entrance to temple, iii. 10. 

Hong-kong, from Kow-loon, iv. 45. 

, harbour of, i. 17. 

Iloo-kew-slian, Proof-svi'ord rook, iii. 12. 


Irgao-shan, British encampment at, i. 89. 
Irrigating wheel and Melon islands, iv. 17 

Joss-house, Chapoo, iv. 36. 
Jugglers exhibiting, ii. 22. 
Junks loading at Tseen-tang, iv. 1 1 . 
Junks passing an inclined plane, iv. 8. 


KUns at King-tan, ii. 23. 
Kin-shan, or Golden island, i. 5. 
Kite-flying at Hae-kwan, iv. 6. 
Ko-long-soo, Amoy from, iv. 39. 
Kow-loon, Fort Victoria, ii. 40. 
, Hong-kong from, iv. 45. 

Ladies playing at cards, iii. 18. 
Landing-place, Yuk-shan, iii. 60. 
Lanterns, feast of, ii. 71. 
Lantern show-room, ii. 37. 
Lin-Sln-Choo, raree show at, i. 48. 


Macao, chapel In the great temple, i. 68. 

, facade of the great temple, i. 66. 

, from Heang-shan, ii. 27. 

, Grotto of Camoens, iii. 42. 

, Pria Grande, ii. 46. 

Mandarin's house, a dinner party, i. 93. 

, house, near Nanking, i. 74. 

-, family playing cards, iii. 18. 

, pavilion and gardens, Peking, Ii. 15. 

, paying a visit of ceremony, ii. 20. 

Marriage procession, iii. 58. 

, presents, arrival of, at the bridal 

residence, iv. 24. 
Melon islands, iv. 17. 
Merchant's house, Canton, i. 95. 
Military station, Chokien, i. 53. 

, Tong-chang-foo, i. 87. 

Mountains of Woo-tang, iii. 5 



Nanking, bridge of, iv. 30. 

, city of, ii. 16. 

, mandarin's house at, i. 74. 

, from porcelain tower, iv. 40. 

, porcelain tower, ii. 32. 

Ning-po, city of, ii. 67. 

, cotton plantations, ii. 25. 

, river, estuary of, iii. 15. 


Offerings for departed relatives, iv. 1 8. 

Opium smokers, iii. 54. 

Ou-ma-too, or five horses' heads, i. 63. 

Pagoda and village on the canal, Canton, iv. 33. 
Palace, imperial travelling, at Hoo-kew-shan, 

i. 14. 

, Gardens, Peking, iii. 46. 

, Tseaou-shan, i. 42. 

, Yuen-min-yuen, hall of audience, iii. 8. 

Pan-tze, punishment of, i. 35. 

Pavilion and gardens of a mandarin, Peking, 

ii. 15. 

, of the star of hope. Tan-chow, ii. 41. 

Peking, palace gardens, iii. 46. 

■ , pavilion and gardens of a mandarin at, 

ii. 15. 

, lantern show-room, ii. 37. 

, western gate, iii. 39. 

Plantations, cotton, at Ning-po, ii. 25. 
Poo-ta-la, or great temple, i. 20. 
Poo-too, Chusan, grand temple at, iv. 28. 
Punishment, bastinado, i. 35. 

•, Pan-tze, i. 35. 

, Tcha, or cangue, ii. 43. 


Quang- Yen-Rock, temple of the bonzes at 



Raree show, i. 45. 
Rice sellers, i. 87. 

Rice sowing, ilii. 27. 

transplanting, iii. 30. 

Rock gates, or Shih-mun, iii. 23. 


Sacrifice of the Cliing-tswe-tsee, or liarvest 

moon, iii. 36. 
See-hoo, lake of, i. 8. 

Se-tsean-shan, or western seared hills, i. 22. 
Seven-star mountains, i. 24. 
Shih-mun, iii. 23. 
Shih-tan, cataract of, iii. 45. 
Shuttlecock, playing with the feet, iii. 32. 
Silk-dyeing and winding, iii. 25. 
Silk-farms, iii. 61. 
Silk-worms feeding, i. 56. 
Silver Island, iv. 41. 
Soo-chow-foo, sowing rice, iii. 27. 
Spring-meeting, iv. 15. 
Sticks of fate, consulting, iii. 64. 
Sun and moon, spectacle of, i. 28. 

Tae-ping, Shaou-kwan, ii. 56. 
Ta-hae, estuary of, iii. 15. 
Tai-wang-kow, Canton river, iii. 17. 
Taou-kwang, emperor, iii. 67. 
Tea cidture of, i. 26. 

dealers at Tong-chow-foo, i. 77. 

Temple, chapel of, at Macao, i. 68. 

, Confucius of, first entrance, Ting-hai, 

ii. 48. 

-, Buddha of, i. 37. 

-, Honan, entrance to, iii. 10. 

iii. 66. 

, great, Ting-hai, altar-piece of, ii. 52. 

, facade of, at Macao, i. 66. 

, Bonzes of the, i. 49. 

, Polo-tai-hoo, iv. 5. 

, Poo-too, Chusan, iv. 28. 

, thundering winds, i. 8. 

, Zhehol, near, i. 20. 

Travelling palace, at the How-kew-shan, i. 14. 
Tseaou-shan, palace at, i. 42. 



Tseih-sing-yen, or seven-star mountains, i. 24. 
Tuug-ting-shan, i. 60. 
Ting-hoo, cascade of, iv. 9. 
Tinsr-hai, fortress of terror, iv. 27. 

, capture of, i. 91. 

, scene in the suburbs of, iii. 53. 

, first entrance, temple of Confucius, 

ii. 48. 
Tien-sin, theatre at, i. 82. 

, an itenerant doctor at, ii. 13. 

Tomlinson, Colonel, death of, iv. 36. 

Too-hing, or two peaks, Le-nai, iv. 25. 

Tripod lake, iv. 9. 

Tseen-tang, iv. 4. 

Tou-chang-foo, i. 87. 

Tou-chow, pavilion of the star of hope, ii. 41. 

Victoria Fort, Kow-loon, ii. 40. 


Western seared hills, i. 22. 
Wall (great) of China, i. 29. 

, termination of, iii. 21. 

Whampoa, from Dane's island, i. 80. 
Woo-tang mountains, iii. 5. 
Western gate, Peking, iii. 39. 
Wo-e-shan, or Bohea hills, Fo-kien, ii. 45. 

Yellow pagoda fort, Canton river, iii. 17. 
Yellow river, entrance to, iii. 34. 
Yuk-shan, landing-place, iii. 60. 
Yang-chow, pass of, ii. 60. 
Ying-tih, coal mines, iv. 14. 
Yang-tse-keang river. Silver island, iv. 41. 



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